If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
ABSTRACT Computer systems for use by physicians have had limited impact on clinical medicine. When one examines the most common reasons for poor acceptance of medical computing systems, the potential relevance of artificial intelligence techniques becomes evident. This paper proposes design criteria for clinical computing systems and demonstrates their relationship to current research in knowledge engineering. The MYCIN System is used to illustrate the ways in which our research group has attempted to respond to the design criteria cited. My goal is to present design criteria which may encourage the use of computer programs by physicians, and to show that Al offers some particularly pertinent methods for responding to the design criteria outlined.
Knowledge about a particular type of ore deposit is encoded in a computational model representing observable geological features and the relative significance thereof. Following the initial design of a model, simple performance evaluation techniques are used to assess the extent to which the performance of the model reflects faithfully the intent of the model designer. These results identify specific portions of the model that might benefit from "fine tuning", and establish priorities for such revisions. This description of the Prospector system and the model design process serves to illustrate the process of transferring human expertise about a subjective domain into a mechanical realization. I. INTRODUCTION In an increasingly complex and specialized world, human expertise about diverse subjects spanning scientific, economic, social, and political issues plays an increasingly important role in the functioning of all kinds of organizations.
Meta-DENDRAL programs are products of a large, interdisciplinary group of Stanford University scientists concerned with many and highly varied aspects of the mechanization of scientific reasoning and the formalization of scientific knowledge for this purpose. An early motivation for our work was to explore the power of existing Al methods, such as heuristic search, for reasoning in difficult scientific problems . DENDRAL project began in 1965. Then, as now, we were concerned with the conceptual problems of designing and writing symbol manipulation programs that used substantial bodies of domain-specific scientific knowledge. In contrast, this was a time in the history of AI in which most laboratories were working on general problem solving methods, e.g., in 1965 work on resolution theorem proving was in its prime.
Dr. Francois Paycha, born at Narbonne, studied medicine at the University of Montpellier. His first researches were concerned with the embryology of the eye, later using the distribution of radioactive phosphorus P32 to study the structure of the tissues and for the detection of tumours. He was then appointed to the National Centre of Scientific Research. While in charge of a hospital clinic, he noted the considerable differences in the diagnoses of conscientious and knowledgeable practitioners and those advanced by the hospital. In view of the special need for exact diagnosis in medicine he made a study of the causes of these differences.
His psychiatric training was at Rockland State Hospital (N.Y.), 1932-4. Until 1941 he held several fellowships at Yale University, Laboratory of Neurophysiology, on activity of the central nervous system, becoming Assistant Professor 1940-1. From 1941 to 1952 he was Professor of Psychiatry and Physiology and Neurophysiologist at the University of Illinois. Since 1952 he has been staff member of the Research Laboratory of Electronics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is the author of numerous articles on functional organization of the brain, and on facilitation, extinction and functional organisation of the cerebral cortex.
Recent activities have swung away from biology, but this will be remedied. THE application of learning machines to process control is discussed. Three approaches to the design of learning machines are shown to have more in common than is immediately apparent. These are (1) based on the use of conditional probabilities, (2) suggested by the idea that biological learning is due to facilitation of synapses and (3) based on existing statistical theory dealing with the optimisation of operating conditions. Although the application of logical-type machines to process control involves formidable complexity, design principles are evolved here for a learning machine which deals with quantitative signal and depends for its operation on the computation of correlation coefficients.
Frank Rosenblatt, born in New Rochelle, New York, U.S.A., July 11, 1928, graduated from Cornell University in 1950, and received a PhD degree in psychology, from the same university, in 1956. He was engaged in research on schizophrenia, as a Fellow of the U.S. Public Health Service, 1951-1953. He has made contributions to techniques of multivariate analysis, psychopathology, information processing and control systems, and physiological brain models. He is currently a Research Psychologist at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., in Buffalo, New York, where he Is Project Engineer responsible for Project PARA (Perceiving and Recognizing Automaton). FRANK ROSENBLATT SUMMARY A THEORETICAL brain model, the perceptron, has been developed at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, In Buffalo, New York.
Dr. Uttley took an Honours degree in Mathematics at King's College, London where he also took a degree in Psychology and did postgraduate research in Visual Perception. At the Royal Radar establishment he designed and built analogue and digital computers. For the last five years Dr. Uttley has been working on theories of computing in the nervous system. The suggestion is based on the similarity of behaviour of these formal systems and or animals. The design of classification computers is discussed in the first paper; the design of conditional probability computers Is discussed in a third paper (Uttley, 1958, ref. 15); in both papers working models are described.
Dr. W. Ross Ashby, born in London, studied medicine at Cambridge and London, took M.B., B.Ch. He has since been engaged in research in psychiatry, specialising in the application of generalised dynamic principles (equilibrium, homeostasis, self-repairing systems). His present interests are: study of complex equilibria, especially in their topological aspects, as applied to the intelligent and adaptive aspects of the brain. He is now in the Department of Research of Barnwood House Hospital, Gloucester. W. ROSS ASHBY SUMMARY THE Phenomenon of habituation, in which the response to any regularly repeated stimulus decreases, has not so far received any general mechanistic explanation.
Dr. MacKay is a lecturer in Physics After graduating from St. Andrew's University in 1943 he spent three years on Radar work with the Admiralty. Since 1946, when he joined the staff of King' s College, he has been active in the development of information theory, with special interest in its bearing on the study of both natural and artificial information-systems. In 1951 a Rockefeller Fellowship enabled him to spend a year working in this field in U.S.A. His experimental work has been mainly concerned at first with highspeed analogue computation, and latterly with the informational organization of the nervous system. D. M. MACKAY SUMMARY THIS paper is concerned with some theoretical problems of securing and evaluating'intelligence' in artificial organisms, - particularly the kind of operational features that distinguish what we call'intellect' from mere ability to calculate. Among those discussed are (a) the ability to take cognizance of the'weight' as well as the structure of Information.