Although it is convenient for experimental purposes to think of perception in stimulus-response terms, the immense contribution of stored data, required for prediction, makes us see perception as largely cognitive. Although there must be physiological mechanisms to carry out the cognitive logical processes, of generalising and selecting stored data, the concepts we need for understanding what the physiology is carrying out are not part of physiology. This makes parallel processing convenient for biological computing, and serial computing more convenient for man-made computers. If so, biological perception seems to demonstrate powers of parallel processing, while computers demonstrate very different powers of serial processing.
The machines (usually digital computers) will classify simple shapes and printed letters and digits represented (by means of a suitable television scanner) as a matrix of I s and Os. Psychologists concerned with analysing complex behaviour often have to select an appropriate level of description. Let us confine our attention to three levels: words, phrases, sentences. Figure 1 shows a set of rules subdivided into numbered groups (1, 2, 3,..., 6).
In Chapter 2, a brief review of the main alternative approaches to the development of brain models is presented. Chapter 4 contains basic definitions and some of the notation to be used in later sections are presented. Parts II and III are devoted to a summary of the established theoretical results obtained to date. Part II (Chapters 5 through 14) deals with the theory of three-layer series-coupled perceptrons, on which most work has been done to date.
This listing is intended as an introduction to the literature on Artificial Intelligence, i.e., to the literature dealing with the problem of making machines behave intelligently. We have divided this area into categories and cross-indexed the references accordingly. Large bibliographies without some classification facility are next to useless. This particular field is still young, but there are already many instances in which workers have wasted much time in rediscovering (for better or for worse) schemes already reported. In the last year or two this problem has become worse, and in such a situation just about any information is better than none. This bibliography is intended to serve just that purpose-to present some information about this literature. The selection was confined mainly to publications directly concerned with construction of artificial problem-solving systems. Many peripheral areas are omitted completely or represented only by a few citations.IRE Trans. on Human Factors in Electronics, HFE-2, pages 39-55
Man-computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partnership. The main aims are 1) to let computers facilitate formulative thinking as they now facilitate the solution of formulated problems, and 2) to enable men and computers to cooperate in making decisions and controlling complex situations without inflexible dependence on predetermined programs. In the anticipated symbiotic partnership, men will set the goals, formulate the hypotheses, determine the criteria, and perform the evaluations. Computing machines will do the routinizable work that must be done to prepare the way for insights and decisions in technical and scientific thinking. Preliminary analyses indicate that the symbiotic partnership will perform intellectual operations much more effectively than man alone can perform them. Prerequisites for the achievement of the effective, cooperative association include developments in computer time sharing, in memory components, in memory organization, in programming languages, and in input and output equipment.See also: ACM Digital Library citationIRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, HFE-1, pp 4-11
This is an attempt to analyze attitudes and arguments brought forth by questions like "Can machines think?" and "Can machines exhibit intelligence?" Its purpose is to improve the climate which surrounds research in the field of machine or artificial intelligence. Its goal is not to convince those who answer the above questions negatively that they are wrong (although an attempt will be made to refute some of the negative arguments) but that they should be tolerant of research investigating these questions. The negative attitudes existent today tend to inhibit such research.Reprinted in Feigenbaum & Feldman, Computers and Thought (1963).Also in Datamation 9(3), March 1963, pp.34-38.Symposium on Bionics, Rand Technical Report 60 600, pp. 13-19
The design of classification computers is discussed in the first paper; the design of conditional probability computers Is discussed in a third paper (Uttley, 1958, ref. Nervous transmission is in terms of standard impulses which meet the requirements of binary classification. However, at low levels in nervous systems, intensity is signalled in terms of impulse frequency. If, at higher levels, patterns are distinguished by classification then intensity must not be signalled in terms of frequency but in terms of'place'.
These and other considerations are offered to justify earlier suggestions that the mechanization of Intellect requires a hybrid information-system,, wherein the conditional probabilities of digital decision-processes are determined by a separate (though interacting) computing process which could operate best on'analogue' principles. of Illustrates convincingly in a recent paper on problem-solving, there is a fundamental difference between a solution by a strictly formalised procedure and what is termed a'heuristic' solution entailing the crossing of a logical gap, in that the first is logically reversible and repeatable, while the second is not. "Established rules of inference offer public paths for drawing intelligent conclusions from existing knowledge. Any information-system with'intellect' must be capable of activity The degree of logical indeterminacy (the amount of selective information lacking) defines the width of the logical gap crossed in the solution.
This ancient branch of knowledge is represented by the medical practitioner; we shall therefore establish the logical structure of Medicine by studying his activities. If we confine ourselves to the traditional system, the consultation consists of various parts, as follows: the questioning, the general examination, palpation, inspection, examination with instruments. Much emphasis is laid upon the value of a proper examination, a complete record of symptoms, palpation carried out gently and correctly, but no indication is given of the way in which all this material is put together. We shall call all the actions by which the doctor obtains information about his patient the "acquisition of information", which thus comprises the general examination, palpation, questioning the patient, special examinations: in brief, all the serdological and laboratory techniques.
He is currently a Research Psychologist at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., in Buffalo, New York, where he Is Project Engineer responsible for Project PARA (Perceiving and Recognizing Automaton). FRANK ROSENBLATT SUMMARY A THEORETICAL brain model, the perceptron, has been developed at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, In Buffalo, New York. SYMBOLIC LOGIC ONLY a few months before the Office of Naval Research began its support of the perceptron program, at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, John von Neumann, one Of the most outstanding advocates of the proposition that man might some day achieve an artificial device working on the same principles as the human brain, wrote the following prophetic passage (re.f.4): "Logics and mathematics in the central nervous system...must structurally be essentially different from those languages to which our common experience refers... What von Neumann is saying here deserves careful consideration. Similarly, if we are ingenious enough to write a set of exact rules for minimizing the cost of some business operation, we can program a computer to minimize cost, and other such complex problems.