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MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 9

Classics (Collection 2)

Donald Michie Volumes 1 --7 are published by Edinburgh University Press and in the United States by Halsted Press (a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) Volumes 8 -- 9 are published by Ellis Horwood Ltd., Publishers, Chichester and in the United States by Halsted Press (a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 9 The publisher's colophon is reproduced from James Gillison's drawing of the ancient Market Cross, Printed in Great Britain by Biddles of Guildford All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form of by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission. One intelligent approach to prefaces -- is to have the empty preface. The well prepared reader will form a good idea of the technical programme just from looking at the table of contents; together with the names of the authors, this gives him a good idea of what happened at the symposium. I could try to assess the tallcs and direct the reader's attention to the more interesting communications.


A Bibliography of Computer Chess

Classics (Collection 2)

The following is a fairly comprehensive list of English language articles on computer chess. Although works about related games like checkers and GO have been excluded, it would be wrong not to refer here to A. L. Samuel's early masterpiece "Some studies in machine learning using the game of checkers" In McDonell, whose general assistance was much appreciated. Many people reviewed and commented upon early drafts, the comments and observations by Max Bramer and Hartmut Tanke being especially valuable. Readers may also be interested in the excellent annotated bibliography by Harald Relcsten [259], whose reviews include not only quotations and paraphrased abstracts, but interesting observations. For computer chess works in other languages, especially German and Russian, a revised version of the bibliography by Egbert Meissenberg "Schach liche leistungen von computer", Deutsche Schachblaetter (1968), 1-4, is reputed to be the most correct.


Relational Programming

Classics (Collection 2)

A programming language needs simple and well defined semantics. The two favoured theoretical bases for languages have been lambda calculus as advocated by Landin and others, and predicate calculus as advocated by Kowalski (see Landin (1966) and Kowalski (1973)). In this paper I adopt an approach based on predicate calculus, but in a manner that differs from the existing PROLOG language (Warren 1975 and Battani & Meloni 1973) in that I adopt a "forward inference" approach -- inferring conclusions from premises, rather than the "backward inference" approach of PROLOG, which starts with a desired conclusion and tries to find ways of inferring it. This difference is reflected in the internal structure of the associated implementations, that of PROLOG being a "backtrack search" kind of implementation, while the most obvious implementation of the system proposed here involves a kind of mass operation on tables of data, reminiscent of APL (Iverson 1962) but in fact identical in many respects with the work of Codd (Codd 1970) on relational data bases. Indeed, from one perspective this paper can be seen as an extension of Codd's work into the realm of general purpose computing.


MI-8-FrontMatter.pdf

Classics (Collection 2)

Editor-in-Chief: Donald Michie are all published by Edinburgh University Press and in the United States of America by Halsted Press (a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 8 New York - London - Sydney - Toronto The publisher's colophon is reproduced from James Gillison's drawing of the ancient Market Cross, Chichester First published in 1977 by No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission.



25 The Mark 1.5 Edinburgh Robot Facility

Classics (Collection 2)

In May 1971 the Mark 1.5 Edinburgh robot system went online as a complete hand-eye system. Two years earlier the Mark 1 device had been connected to the ic L 4130 computer of the Department of Machine Intelligence and Perception. The present equipment thus represents a useable system, not yet up to full Mark 2 specification, but considerably more useful than the Mark 1. It is important that the complete system should be as self-reliant as possible. If it depends much upon human assistance to pre-process information or to put things right when they go astray, it is all too easy in one's research to avoid the central issues of a problem, and produce a'solution' which does not survive when confronted by real situations.


11 An Approach to the Frame Problem, and its Implementation

Classics (Collection 2)

The frame problem in representing natural-language information is discussed. It is argued that the problem is not restricted to problem-solving-type situations, in which it has mostly been studied so far, but also has a broader significance. A new solution to the frame problem, which arose within a larger system for representing natural-language information, is described. The basic idea is to extend the predicate calculus notation with a special operator, Unless, with peculiar properties. Some difficulties with Unless are described.


MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 13

Classics (Collection 2)

OXFORD 1994 Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP Oxford New York Athens Auckland Bangkok Bombay Calcutta Cape Town Dar es Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madras Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi Paris Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto and associated companies in Berlin lbadan Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc., New York 0 E. K. Furukawa, D. Michie, and S. Muggleton, 1994 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press.


MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 12 MACHINE INTELLIGENCE

Classics (Collection 2)

Machine Intelligence 1 (1967) (eds N. Collins and D. Michie) Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh Machine Intelligence 2 (1968) (eds E. Dale and D. Michie) Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh (1 and 2 published as one volume in 1971 by Edinburgh University Press) (eds N. Collins, E. Dale, and D. Michie) Machine Intelligence 3 (1968) (ed. CLARENDON PRESS - OXFORD 1991 Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP Oxford New York Toronto Delhi Bombay Calcutta Madras Karachi Petaling Jaya Singapore Hong Kong Tokyo Nairobi Dar es Salaam Cape Town Melbourne Auckland and associated companies in Berlin lbadan Oxford is a trade mark of Oxford University Press Published in the United States by Oxford University Press, New York C J. E. Hayes, D. Michie, and E. Tyugu, 1991 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Machine intelligence. ISBN 0-19-853823-5 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Machine intelligence 12: towards an automated logic of human thought /edited by J. E. Hayes, D. Michie, and Evgeni Velikhov Vice President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR It is a pleasure to contribute an introduction to this twelfth volume of the international Machine Intelligence series. My own work has, at times, cast me in the scientific roles of experimenter, instrumentation designer, and administrator.


MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 11

Classics (Collection 2)

Machine Intelligence 1 (1967) (eds N. Collins and D. Michie) Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh Machine Intelligence 2 (1968) (eds E. Dale and D. Michie) Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh (1 and 2 published as one volume in 1971 by Edinburgh University Press) (eds N. Collins, E. Dale, and D. Michie). CLARENDON PRESS OXFORD 1988 Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford 0X2 6DP Oxford New York Toronto Delhi Bombay Calcutta Madras Karachi Petaling Jaya Singapore Hong Kong Tokyo Nairobi Dar es Salaam Cape Town Melbourne Auckland and associated companies in Berlin lbadan Oxford is a trade mark of Oxford University Press Published in the United States by Oxford University Press, New York J. E. Hayes, D. Michie, and J. Richards 1988 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Machine Intelligence. Richard J. 006.3 ISBN 0-19-853718-2 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available Typeset and printed in Northern Ireland at The Universities Press (Belfast) Ltd. Held at intervals in Scotland, the first seven International Machine Intelligence Workshops spanning the period of 1965-71 were involved in developing the new subject internationally--in those early days mainly as a mid-Atlantic phenomenon.