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Red Hat Linux is coming to your Vette and Caddy Escalade

ZDNet

Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols, aka sjvn, has been writing about technology and the business of technology since CP/M-80 was the cutting edge, PC operating system; 300bps was a fast Internet connection; WordStar was the state of the art word processor; and we liked it. Linux has long played a role in cars. Some companies, such as Tesla, run their own homebrew Linux distros. Audi, Mercedes-Benz, Hyundai, and Toyota all rely on Automotive Grade Linux (AGL). AGL is a collaborative cross-industry effort developing an open platform for connected cars with over 140 members.


Technology Ethics in Action: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This special issue interrogates the meaning and impacts of "tech ethics": the embedding of ethics into digital technology research, development, use, and governance. In response to concerns about the social harms associated with digital technologies, many individuals and institutions have articulated the need for a greater emphasis on ethics in digital technology. Yet as more groups embrace the concept of ethics, critical discourses have emerged questioning whose ethics are being centered, whether "ethics" is the appropriate frame for improving technology, and what it means to develop "ethical" technology in practice. This interdisciplinary issue takes up these questions, interrogating the relationships among ethics, technology, and society in action. This special issue engages with the normative and contested notions of ethics itself, how ethics has been integrated with technology across domains, and potential paths forward to support more just and egalitarian technology. Rather than starting from philosophical theories, the authors in this issue orient their articles around the real-world discourses and impacts of tech ethics--i.e., tech ethics in action.


Artificial Intellgence -- Application in Life Sciences and Beyond. The Upper Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium UR-AI 2021

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Efficient and Effective Generation of Test Cases for Pedestrian Detection -- Search-based Software Testing of Baidu Apollo in SVL

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the growing capabilities of autonomous vehicles, there is a higher demand for sophisticated and pragmatic quality assurance approaches for machine learning-enabled systems in the automotive AI context. The use of simulation-based prototyping platforms provides the possibility for early-stage testing, enabling inexpensive testing and the ability to capture critical corner-case test scenarios. Simulation-based testing properly complements conventional on-road testing. However, due to the large space of test input parameters in these systems, the efficient generation of effective test scenarios leading to the unveiling of failures is a challenge. This paper presents a study on testing pedestrian detection and emergency braking system of the Baidu Apollo autonomous driving platform within the SVL simulator. We propose an evolutionary automated test generation technique that generates failure-revealing scenarios for Apollo in the SVL environment. Our approach models the input space using a generic and flexible data structure and benefits a multi-criteria safety-based heuristic for the objective function targeted for optimization. This paper presents the results of our proposed test generation technique in the 2021 IEEE Autonomous Driving AI Test Challenge. In order to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach, we also report the results from a baseline random generation technique. Our evaluation shows that the proposed evolutionary test case generator is more effective at generating failure-revealing test cases and provides higher diversity between the generated failures than the random baseline.


Exact and Heuristic Approaches to Drone Delivery Problems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The Flying Sidekick Traveling Salesman Problem (FSTSP) considers a delivery system composed by a truck and a drone. The drone launches from the truck with a single package to deliver to a customer. Each drone must return to the truck to recharge batteries, pick up another package, and launch again to a new customer location. This work proposes a novel Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) formulation and a heuristic approach to address the problem. The proposedMIP formulation yields better linear relaxation bounds than previously proposed formulations for all instances, and was capable of optimally solving several unsolved instances from the literature. A hybrid heuristic based on the General Variable Neighborhood Search metaheuristic combining Tabu Search concepts is employed to obtain high-quality solutions for large-size instances. The efficiency of the algorithm was evaluated on 1415 benchmark instances from the literature, and over 80% of the best known solutions were improved.


The Best Automotive News in April - EE Times Asia

#artificialintelligence

So much happened in the auto industry this month it can't fit in one column; I whittled it down to the things that interested me. There is a lot of variety by topic -- from Auto Shanghai to a new operating system to an interesting DARPA story to the European Union proposal for AI use regulation. These ten stories are summarized in the following table. Auto Shanghai Auto Shanghai is among the world's largest auto shows and is the first auto show to be held after the pandemic. The attendance is expected to reach about 1 million people and around 1,000 exhibitors.


White Paper Machine Learning in Certified Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine Learning (ML) seems to be one of the most promising solution to automate partially or completely some of the complex tasks currently realized by humans, such as driving vehicles, recognizing voice, etc. It is also an opportunity to implement and embed new capabilities out of the reach of classical implementation techniques. However, ML techniques introduce new potential risks. Therefore, they have only been applied in systems where their benefits are considered worth the increase of risk. In practice, ML techniques raise multiple challenges that could prevent their use in systems submitted to certification constraints. But what are the actual challenges? Can they be overcome by selecting appropriate ML techniques, or by adopting new engineering or certification practices? These are some of the questions addressed by the ML Certification 3 Workgroup (WG) set-up by the Institut de Recherche Technologique Saint Exup\'ery de Toulouse (IRT), as part of the DEEL Project.


How Volkswagen's $50 Billion Plan to Beat Tesla Short-Circuited

WSJ.com: WSJD - Technology

The car, however, didn't work as advertised. It could drive, turn corners and stop on a dime. But the fancy technology features VW had promised were either absent or broken. The company's programmers hadn't yet figured out how to update the car's software remotely. Its futuristic head-up display that was supposed to flash speed, directions and other data onto the windshield didn't function.


Digital Twins Are Not Monozygotic -- Cross-Replicating ADAS Testing in Two Industry-Grade Automotive Simulators

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The increasing levels of software- and data-intensive driving automation call for an evolution of automotive software testing. As a recommended practice of the Verification and Validation (V&V) process of ISO/PAS 21448, a candidate standard for safety of the intended functionality for road vehicles, simulation-based testing has the potential to reduce both risks and costs. There is a growing body of research on devising test automation techniques using simulators for Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems (ADAS). However, how similar are the results if the same test scenarios are executed in different simulators? We conduct a replication study of applying a Search-Based Software Testing (SBST) solution to a real-world ADAS (PeVi, a pedestrian vision detection system) using two different commercial simulators, namely, TASS/Siemens PreScan and ESI Pro-SiVIC. Based on a minimalistic scene, we compare critical test scenarios generated using our SBST solution in these two simulators. We show that SBST can be used to effectively and efficiently generate critical test scenarios in both simulators, and the test results obtained from the two simulators can reveal several weaknesses of the ADAS under test. However, executing the same test scenarios in the two simulators leads to notable differences in the details of the test outputs, in particular, related to (1) safety violations revealed by tests, and (2) dynamics of cars and pedestrians. Based on our findings, we recommend future V&V plans to include multiple simulators to support robust simulation-based testing and to base test objectives on measures that are less dependant on the internals of the simulators.


Overview of Tools Supporting Planning for Automated Driving

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Planning is an essential topic in the realm of automated driving. Besides planning algorithms that are widely covered in the literature, planning requires different software tools for its development, validation, and execution. This paper presents a survey of such tools including map representations, communication, traffic rules, open-source planning stacks and middleware, simulation, and visualization tools as well as benchmarks. We start by defining the planning task and different supporting tools. Next, we provide a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art developments and analysis of relations among them. Finally, we discuss the current gaps and suggest future research directions.