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Submodularity In Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this manuscript, we offer a gentle review of submodularity and supermodularity and their properties. We offer a plethora of submodular definitions; a full description of a number of example submodular functions and their generalizations; example discrete constraints; a discussion of basic algorithms for maximization, minimization, and other operations; a brief overview of continuous submodular extensions; and some historical applications. We then turn to how submodularity is useful in machine learning and artificial intelligence. This includes summarization, and we offer a complete account of the differences between and commonalities amongst sketching, coresets, extractive and abstractive summarization in NLP, data distillation and condensation, and data subset selection and feature selection. We discuss a variety of ways to produce a submodular function useful for machine learning, including heuristic hand-crafting, learning or approximately learning a submodular function or aspects thereof, and some advantages of the use of a submodular function as a coreset producer. We discuss submodular combinatorial information functions, and how submodularity is useful for clustering, data partitioning, parallel machine learning, active and semi-supervised learning, probabilistic modeling, and structured norms and loss functions.


A Transfer Learning Pipeline for Educational Resource Discovery with Application in Leading Paragraph Generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Effective human learning depends on a wide selection of educational materials that align with the learner's current understanding of the topic. While the Internet has revolutionized human learning or education, a substantial resource accessibility barrier still exists. Namely, the excess of online information can make it challenging to navigate and discover high-quality learning materials. In this paper, we propose the educational resource discovery (ERD) pipeline that automates web resource discovery for novel domains. The pipeline consists of three main steps: data collection, feature extraction, and resource classification. We start with a known source domain and conduct resource discovery on two unseen target domains via transfer learning. We first collect frequent queries from a set of seed documents and search on the web to obtain candidate resources, such as lecture slides and introductory blog posts. Then we introduce a novel pretrained information retrieval deep neural network model, query-document masked language modeling (QD-MLM), to extract deep features of these candidate resources. We apply a tree-based classifier to decide whether the candidate is a positive learning resource. The pipeline achieves F1 scores of 0.94 and 0.82 when evaluated on two similar but novel target domains. Finally, we demonstrate how this pipeline can benefit an application: leading paragraph generation for surveys. This is the first study that considers various web resources for survey generation, to the best of our knowledge. We also release a corpus of 39,728 manually labeled web resources and 659 queries from NLP, Computer Vision (CV), and Statistics (STATS).


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


Low-resource Learning with Knowledge Graphs: A Comprehensive Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning methods especially deep neural networks have achieved great success but many of them often rely on a number of labeled samples for training. In real-world applications, we often need to address sample shortage due to e.g., dynamic contexts with emerging prediction targets and costly sample annotation. Therefore, low-resource learning, which aims to learn robust prediction models with no enough resources (especially training samples), is now being widely investigated. Among all the low-resource learning studies, many prefer to utilize some auxiliary information in the form of Knowledge Graph (KG), which is becoming more and more popular for knowledge representation, to reduce the reliance on labeled samples. In this survey, we very comprehensively reviewed over $90$ papers about KG-aware research for two major low-resource learning settings -- zero-shot learning (ZSL) where new classes for prediction have never appeared in training, and few-shot learning (FSL) where new classes for prediction have only a small number of labeled samples that are available. We first introduced the KGs used in ZSL and FSL studies as well as the existing and potential KG construction solutions, and then systematically categorized and summarized KG-aware ZSL and FSL methods, dividing them into different paradigms such as the mapping-based, the data augmentation, the propagation-based and the optimization-based. We next presented different applications, including not only KG augmented tasks in Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing (e.g., image classification, text classification and knowledge extraction), but also tasks for KG curation (e.g., inductive KG completion), and some typical evaluation resources for each task. We eventually discussed some challenges and future directions on aspects such as new learning and reasoning paradigms, and the construction of high quality KGs.


Artificial Intellgence -- Application in Life Sciences and Beyond. The Upper Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium UR-AI 2021

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Learning Data Teaching Strategies Via Knowledge Tracing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Teaching plays a fundamental role in human learning. Typically, a human teaching strategy would involve assessing a student's knowledge progress for tailoring the teaching materials in a way that enhances the learning progress. A human teacher would achieve this by tracing a student's knowledge over important learning concepts in a task. Albeit, such teaching strategy is not well exploited yet in machine learning as current machine teaching methods tend to directly assess the progress on individual training samples without paying attention to the underlying learning concepts in a learning task. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called Knowledge Augmented Data Teaching (KADT), which can optimize a data teaching strategy for a student model by tracing its knowledge progress over multiple learning concepts in a learning task. Specifically, the KADT method incorporates a knowledge tracing model to dynamically capture the knowledge progress of a student model in terms of latent learning concepts. Then we develop an attention pooling mechanism to distill knowledge representations of a student model with respect to class labels, which enables to develop a data teaching strategy on critical training samples. We have evaluated the performance of the KADT method on four different machine learning tasks including knowledge tracing, sentiment analysis, movie recommendation, and image classification. The results comparing to the state-of-the-art methods empirically validate that KADT consistently outperforms others on all tasks.


A Practical Tutorial on Explainable AI Techniques

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Last years have been characterized by an upsurge of opaque automatic decision support systems, such as Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). Although they have great generalization and prediction skills, their functioning does not allow obtaining detailed explanations of their behaviour. As opaque machine learning models are increasingly being employed to make important predictions in critical environments, the danger is to create and use decisions that are not justifiable or legitimate. Therefore, there is a general agreement on the importance of endowing machine learning models with explainability. The reason is that EXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) techniques can serve to verify and certify model outputs and enhance them with desirable notions such as trustworthiness, accountability, transparency and fairness. This tutorial is meant to be the go-to handbook for any audience with a computer science background aiming at getting intuitive insights of machine learning models, accompanied with straight, fast, and intuitive explanations out of the box. We believe that these methods provide a valuable contribution for applying XAI techniques in their particular day-to-day models, datasets and use-cases. Figure \ref{fig:Flowchart} acts as a flowchart/map for the reader and should help him to find the ideal method to use according to his type of data. The reader will find a description of the proposed method as well as an example of use and a Python notebook that he can easily modify as he pleases in order to apply it to his own case of application.


15 Best Udacity Machine Learning Courses

#artificialintelligence

This is an intermediate-level free artificial intelligence course. This course will teach the basics of modern AI as well as some of the representative applications of AI including machine learning, probabilistic reasoning, robotics, computer vision, and natural language processing. To understand this course, you should have some previous understanding of probability theory and linear algebra.


The AI Index 2021 Annual Report

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Welcome to the fourth edition of the AI Index Report. This year we significantly expanded the amount of data available in the report, worked with a broader set of external organizations to calibrate our data, and deepened our connections with the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI). The AI Index Report tracks, collates, distills, and visualizes data related to artificial intelligence. Its mission is to provide unbiased, rigorously vetted, and globally sourced data for policymakers, researchers, executives, journalists, and the general public to develop intuitions about the complex field of AI. The report aims to be the most credible and authoritative source for data and insights about AI in the world.


Student sentiment Analysis Using Classification With Feature Extraction Techniques

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Technical growths have empowered, numerous revolutions in the educational system by acquainting with technology into the classroom and by elevating the learning experience. Nowadays Web-based learning is getting much popularity. This paper describes the web-based learning and their effectiveness towards students. One of the prime factors in education or learning system is feedback; it is beneficial to learning if it must be used effectively. In this paper, we worked on how machine learning techniques like Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB), Decision Tree (DT) can be applied over Web-based learning, emphasis given on sentiment present in the feedback students. We also work on two types of Feature Extraction Technique (FETs) namely Count Vector (CVr) or Bag of Words) (BoW) and Term Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) Vector. In the research study, it is our goal for our proposed LR, SVM, NB, and DT models to classify the presence of Student Feedback Dataset (SFB) with improved accuracy with cleaned dataset and feature extraction techniques. The SFB is one of the significant concerns among the student sentimental analysis.