Results


Identifying Cyber Threats Before They Happen: Deep Learning

#artificialintelligence

Crypto.com, Microsoft, NVidia, and Okta all got hacked this year. In some hacks, attackers are looking to take data, while some are just trying things out. Either way, it is in the interest of companies to patch up the holes in their security systems as more attackers are learning to take advantage of them. The project I am working on now is one to prevent cyber threats like these from happening. When a company is hacked, there is a lot at stake.


Selecting the suitable resampling strategy for imbalanced data classification regarding dataset properties

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In many application domains such as medicine, information retrieval, cybersecurity, social media, etc., datasets used for inducing classification models often have an unequal distribution of the instances of each class. This situation, known as imbalanced data classification, causes low predictive performance for the minority class examples. Thus, the prediction model is unreliable although the overall model accuracy can be acceptable. Oversampling and undersampling techniques are well-known strategies to deal with this problem by balancing the number of examples of each class. However, their effectiveness depends on several factors mainly related to data intrinsic characteristics, such as imbalance ratio, dataset size and dimensionality, overlapping between classes or borderline examples. In this work, the impact of these factors is analyzed through a comprehensive comparative study involving 40 datasets from different application areas. The objective is to obtain models for automatic selection of the best resampling strategy for any dataset based on its characteristics. These models allow us to check several factors simultaneously considering a wide range of values since they are induced from very varied datasets that cover a broad spectrum of conditions. This differs from most studies that focus on the individual analysis of the characteristics or cover a small range of values. In addition, the study encompasses both basic and advanced resampling strategies that are evaluated by means of eight different performance metrics, including new measures specifically designed for imbalanced data classification. The general nature of the proposal allows the choice of the most appropriate method regardless of the domain, avoiding the search for special purpose techniques that could be valid for the target data.


Artificial Intelligence Ethics and Safety: practical tools for creating "good" models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The AI Robotics Ethics Society (AIRES) is a non-profit organization founded in 2018 by Aaron Hui to promote awareness and the importance of ethical implementation and regulation of AI. AIRES is now an organization with chapters at universities such as UCLA (Los Angeles), USC (University of Southern California), Caltech (California Institute of Technology), Stanford University, Cornell University, Brown University, and the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). AIRES at PUCRS is the first international chapter of AIRES, and as such, we are committed to promoting and enhancing the AIRES Mission. Our mission is to focus on educating the AI leaders of tomorrow in ethical principles to ensure that AI is created ethically and responsibly. As there are still few proposals for how we should implement ethical principles and normative guidelines in the practice of AI system development, the goal of this work is to try to bridge this gap between discourse and praxis. Between abstract principles and technical implementation. In this work, we seek to introduce the reader to the topic of AI Ethics and Safety. At the same time, we present several tools to help developers of intelligent systems develop "good" models. This work is a developing guide published in English and Portuguese. Contributions and suggestions are welcome.


Artificial Intellgence -- Application in Life Sciences and Beyond. The Upper Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium UR-AI 2021

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


"How Does It Detect A Malicious App?" Explaining the Predictions of AI-based Android Malware Detector

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI methods have been proven to yield impressive performance on Android malware detection. However, most AI-based methods make predictions of suspicious samples in a black-box manner without transparency on models' inference. The expectation on models' explainability and transparency by cyber security and AI practitioners to assure the trustworthiness increases. In this article, we present a novel model-agnostic explanation method for AI models applied for Android malware detection. Our proposed method identifies and quantifies the data features relevance to the predictions by two steps: i) data perturbation that generates the synthetic data by manipulating features' values; and ii) optimization of features attribution values to seek significant changes of prediction scores on the perturbed data with minimal feature values changes. The proposed method is validated by three experiments. We firstly demonstrate that our proposed model explanation method can aid in discovering how AI models are evaded by adversarial samples quantitatively. In the following experiments, we compare the explainability and fidelity of our proposed method with state-of-the-arts, respectively.


Ceasing hate withMoH: Hate Speech Detection in Hindi-English Code-Switched Language

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Social media has become a bedrock for people to voice their opinions worldwide. Due to the greater sense of freedom with the anonymity feature, it is possible to disregard social etiquette online and attack others without facing severe consequences, inevitably propagating hate speech. The current measures to sift the online content and offset the hatred spread do not go far enough. One factor contributing to this is the prevalence of regional languages in social media and the paucity of language flexible hate speech detectors. The proposed work focuses on analyzing hate speech in Hindi-English code-switched language. Our method explores transformation techniques to capture precise text representation. To contain the structure of data and yet use it with existing algorithms, we developed MoH or Map Only Hindi, which means "Love" in Hindi. MoH pipeline consists of language identification, Roman to Devanagari Hindi transliteration using a knowledge base of Roman Hindi words. Finally, it employs the fine-tuned Multilingual Bert and MuRIL language models. We conducted several quantitative experiment studies on three datasets and evaluated performance using Precision, Recall, and F1 metrics. The first experiment studies MoH mapped text's performance with classical machine learning models and shows an average increase of 13% in F1 scores. The second compares the proposed work's scores with those of the baseline models and offers a rise in performance by 6%. Finally, the third reaches the proposed MoH technique with various data simulations using the existing transliteration library. Here, MoH outperforms the rest by 15%. Our results demonstrate a significant improvement in the state-of-the-art scores on all three datasets.


Trustworthy AI: From Principles to Practices

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Fast developing artificial intelligence (AI) technology has enabled various applied systems deployed in the real world, impacting people's everyday lives. However, many current AI systems were found vulnerable to imperceptible attacks, biased against underrepresented groups, lacking in user privacy protection, etc., which not only degrades user experience but erodes the society's trust in all AI systems. In this review, we strive to provide AI practitioners a comprehensive guide towards building trustworthy AI systems. We first introduce the theoretical framework of important aspects of AI trustworthiness, including robustness, generalization, explainability, transparency, reproducibility, fairness, privacy preservation, alignment with human values, and accountability. We then survey leading approaches in these aspects in the industry. To unify the current fragmented approaches towards trustworthy AI, we propose a systematic approach that considers the entire lifecycle of AI systems, ranging from data acquisition to model development, to development and deployment, finally to continuous monitoring and governance. In this framework, we offer concrete action items to practitioners and societal stakeholders (e.g., researchers and regulators) to improve AI trustworthiness. Finally, we identify key opportunities and challenges in the future development of trustworthy AI systems, where we identify the need for paradigm shift towards comprehensive trustworthy AI systems.


Trustworthy AI: A Computational Perspective

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the past few decades, artificial intelligence (AI) technology has experienced swift developments, changing everyone's daily life and profoundly altering the course of human society. The intention of developing AI is to benefit humans, by reducing human labor, bringing everyday convenience to human lives, and promoting social good. However, recent research and AI applications show that AI can cause unintentional harm to humans, such as making unreliable decisions in safety-critical scenarios or undermining fairness by inadvertently discriminating against one group. Thus, trustworthy AI has attracted immense attention recently, which requires careful consideration to avoid the adverse effects that AI may bring to humans, so that humans can fully trust and live in harmony with AI technologies. Recent years have witnessed a tremendous amount of research on trustworthy AI. In this survey, we present a comprehensive survey of trustworthy AI from a computational perspective, to help readers understand the latest technologies for achieving trustworthy AI. Trustworthy AI is a large and complex area, involving various dimensions. In this work, we focus on six of the most crucial dimensions in achieving trustworthy AI: (i) Safety & Robustness, (ii) Non-discrimination & Fairness, (iii) Explainability, (iv) Privacy, (v) Accountability & Auditability, and (vi) Environmental Well-Being. For each dimension, we review the recent related technologies according to a taxonomy and summarize their applications in real-world systems. We also discuss the accordant and conflicting interactions among different dimensions and discuss potential aspects for trustworthy AI to investigate in the future.


Deep Transfer Learning Based Intrusion Detection System for Electric Vehicular Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The Controller Area Network (CAN) bus works as an important protocol in the real-time In-Vehicle Network (IVN) systems for its simple, suitable, and robust architecture. The risk of IVN devices has still been insecure and vulnerable due to the complex data-intensive architectures which greatly increase the accessibility to unauthorized networks and the possibility of various types of cyberattacks. Therefore, the detection of cyberattacks in IVN devices has become a growing interest. With the rapid development of IVNs and evolving threat types, the traditional machine learning-based IDS has to update to cope with the security requirements of the current environment. Nowadays, the progression of deep learning, deep transfer learning, and its impactful outcome in several areas has guided as an effective solution for network intrusion detection. This manuscript proposes a deep transfer learning-based IDS model for IVN along with improved performance in comparison to several other existing models. The unique contributions include effective attribute selection which is best suited to identify malicious CAN messages and accurately detect the normal and abnormal activities, designing a deep transfer learning-based LeNet model, and evaluating considering real-world data. To this end, an extensive experimental performance evaluation has been conducted. The architecture along with empirical analyses shows that the proposed IDS greatly improves the detection accuracy over the mainstream machine learning, deep learning, and benchmark deep transfer learning models and has demonstrated better performance for real-time IVN security.


AI-enabled Automation for Completeness Checking of Privacy Policies

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Technological advances in information sharing have raised concerns about data protection. Privacy policies contain privacy-related requirements about how the personal data of individuals will be handled by an organization or a software system (e.g., a web service or an app). In Europe, privacy policies are subject to compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). A prerequisite for GDPR compliance checking is to verify whether the content of a privacy policy is complete according to the provisions of GDPR. Incomplete privacy policies might result in large fines on violating organization as well as incomplete privacy-related software specifications. Manual completeness checking is both time-consuming and error-prone. In this paper, we propose AI-based automation for the completeness checking of privacy policies. Through systematic qualitative methods, we first build two artifacts to characterize the privacy-related provisions of GDPR, namely a conceptual model and a set of completeness criteria. Then, we develop an automated solution on top of these artifacts by leveraging a combination of natural language processing and supervised machine learning. Specifically, we identify the GDPR-relevant information content in privacy policies and subsequently check them against the completeness criteria. To evaluate our approach, we collected 234 real privacy policies from the fund industry. Over a set of 48 unseen privacy policies, our approach detected 300 of the total of 334 violations of some completeness criteria correctly, while producing 23 false positives. The approach thus has a precision of 92.9% and recall of 89.8%. Compared to a baseline that applies keyword search only, our approach results in an improvement of 24.5% in precision and 38% in recall.