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Identifying Cyber Threats Before They Happen: Deep Learning

#artificialintelligence

Crypto.com, Microsoft, NVidia, and Okta all got hacked this year. In some hacks, attackers are looking to take data, while some are just trying things out. Either way, it is in the interest of companies to patch up the holes in their security systems as more attackers are learning to take advantage of them. The project I am working on now is one to prevent cyber threats like these from happening. When a company is hacked, there is a lot at stake.


State of AI Ethics Report (Volume 6, February 2022)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute (MAIEI) covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second half of 2021 in the field of AI ethics. Particular emphasis is placed on an "Analysis of the AI Ecosystem", "Privacy", "Bias", "Social Media and Problematic Information", "AI Design and Governance", "Laws and Regulations", "Trends", and other areas covered in the "Outside the Boxes" section. The two AI spotlights feature application pieces on "Constructing and Deconstructing Gender with AI-Generated Art" as well as "Will an Artificial Intellichef be Cooking Your Next Meal at a Michelin Star Restaurant?". Given MAIEI's mission to democratize AI, submissions from external collaborators have featured, such as pieces on the "Challenges of AI Development in Vietnam: Funding, Talent and Ethics" and using "Representation and Imagination for Preventing AI Harms". The report is a comprehensive overview of what the key issues in the field of AI ethics were in 2021, what trends are emergent, what gaps exist, and a peek into what to expect from the field of AI ethics in 2022. It is a resource for researchers and practitioners alike in the field to set their research and development agendas to make contributions to the field of AI ethics.


IoT Malware Detection Architecture using a Novel Channel Boosted and Squeezed CNN

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Interaction between devices, people, and the Internet has given birth to a new digital communication model, the Internet of Things (IoT). The seamless network of these smart devices is the core of this IoT model. However, on the other hand, integrating smart devices to constitute a network introduces many security challenges. These connected devices have created a security blind spot, where cybercriminals can easily launch an attack to compromise the devices using malware proliferation techniques. Therefore, malware detection is considered a lifeline for the survival of IoT devices against cyberattacks. This study proposes a novel IoT Malware Detection Architecture (iMDA) using squeezing and boosting dilated convolutional neural network (CNN). The proposed architecture exploits the concepts of edge and smoothing, multi-path dilated convolutional operations, channel squeezing, and boosting in CNN. Edge and smoothing operations are employed with split-transform-merge (STM) blocks to extract local structure and minor contrast variation in the malware images. STM blocks performed multi-path dilated convolutional operations, which helped recognize the global structure of malware patterns. Additionally, channel squeezing and merging helped to get the prominent reduced and diverse feature maps, respectively. Channel squeezing and boosting are applied with the help of STM block at the initial, middle and final levels to capture the texture variation along with the depth for the sake of malware pattern hunting. The proposed architecture has shown substantial performance compared with the customized CNN models. The proposed iMDA has achieved Accuracy: 97.93%, F1-Score: 0.9394, Precision: 0.9864, MCC: 0. 8796, Recall: 0.8873, AUC-PR: 0.9689 and AUC-ROC: 0.9938.


The Text Anonymization Benchmark (TAB): A Dedicated Corpus and Evaluation Framework for Text Anonymization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a novel benchmark and associated evaluation metrics for assessing the performance of text anonymization methods. Text anonymization, defined as the task of editing a text document to prevent the disclosure of personal information, currently suffers from a shortage of privacy-oriented annotated text resources, making it difficult to properly evaluate the level of privacy protection offered by various anonymization methods. This paper presents TAB (Text Anonymization Benchmark), a new, open-source annotated corpus developed to address this shortage. The corpus comprises 1,268 English-language court cases from the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) enriched with comprehensive annotations about the personal information appearing in each document, including their semantic category, identifier type, confidential attributes, and co-reference relations. Compared to previous work, the TAB corpus is designed to go beyond traditional de-identification (which is limited to the detection of predefined semantic categories), and explicitly marks which text spans ought to be masked in order to conceal the identity of the person to be protected. Along with presenting the corpus and its annotation layers, we also propose a set of evaluation metrics that are specifically tailored towards measuring the performance of text anonymization, both in terms of privacy protection and utility preservation. We illustrate the use of the benchmark and the proposed metrics by assessing the empirical performance of several baseline text anonymization models. The full corpus along with its privacy-oriented annotation guidelines, evaluation scripts and baseline models are available on: https://github.com/NorskRegnesentral/text-anonymisation-benchmark


Roadmap for Cybersecurity in Autonomous Vehicles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Autonomous vehicles are on the horizon and will be transforming transportation safety and comfort. These vehicles will be connected to various external systems and utilize advanced embedded systems to perceive their environment and make intelligent decisions. However, this increased connectivity makes these vehicles vulnerable to various cyber-attacks that can have catastrophic effects. Attacks on automotive systems are already on the rise in today's vehicles and are expected to become more commonplace in future autonomous vehicles. Thus, there is a need to strengthen cybersecurity in future autonomous vehicles. In this article, we discuss major automotive cyber-attacks over the past decade and present state-of-the-art solutions that leverage artificial intelligence (AI). We propose a roadmap towards building secure autonomous vehicles and highlight key open challenges that need to be addressed.


Artificial Intelligence Ethics and Safety: practical tools for creating "good" models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The AI Robotics Ethics Society (AIRES) is a non-profit organization founded in 2018 by Aaron Hui to promote awareness and the importance of ethical implementation and regulation of AI. AIRES is now an organization with chapters at universities such as UCLA (Los Angeles), USC (University of Southern California), Caltech (California Institute of Technology), Stanford University, Cornell University, Brown University, and the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). AIRES at PUCRS is the first international chapter of AIRES, and as such, we are committed to promoting and enhancing the AIRES Mission. Our mission is to focus on educating the AI leaders of tomorrow in ethical principles to ensure that AI is created ethically and responsibly. As there are still few proposals for how we should implement ethical principles and normative guidelines in the practice of AI system development, the goal of this work is to try to bridge this gap between discourse and praxis. Between abstract principles and technical implementation. In this work, we seek to introduce the reader to the topic of AI Ethics and Safety. At the same time, we present several tools to help developers of intelligent systems develop "good" models. This work is a developing guide published in English and Portuguese. Contributions and suggestions are welcome.


Utilizing XAI technique to improve autoencoder based model for computer network anomaly detection with shapley additive explanation(SHAP)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) methods are being adopted rapidly, especially in computer network security, such as fraud detection, network anomaly detection, intrusion detection, and much more. However, the lack of transparency of ML and DL based models is a major obstacle to their implementation and criticized due to its black-box nature, even with such tremendous results. Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is a promising area that can improve the trustworthiness of these models by giving explanations and interpreting its output. If the internal working of the ML and DL based models is understandable, then it can further help to improve its performance. The objective of this paper is to show that how XAI can be used to interpret the results of the DL model, the autoencoder in this case. And, based on the interpretation, we improved its performance for computer network anomaly detection. The kernel SHAP method, which is based on the shapley values, is used as a novel feature selection technique. This method is used to identify only those features that are actually causing the anomalous behaviour of the set of attack/anomaly instances. Later, these feature sets are used to train and validate the autoencoder but on benign data only. Finally, the built SHAP_Model outperformed the other two models proposed based on the feature selection method. This whole experiment is conducted on the subset of the latest CICIDS2017 network dataset. The overall accuracy and AUC of SHAP_Model is 94% and 0.969, respectively.


Artificial Intellgence -- Application in Life Sciences and Beyond. The Upper Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium UR-AI 2021

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Deep convolutional forest: a dynamic deep ensemble approach for spam detection in text

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The increase in people's use of mobile messaging services has led to the spread of social engineering attacks like phishing, considering that spam text is one of the main factors in the dissemination of phishing attacks to steal sensitive data such as credit cards and passwords. In addition, rumors and incorrect medical information regarding the COVID-19 pandemic are widely shared on social media leading to people's fear and confusion. Thus, filtering spam content is vital to reduce risks and threats. Previous studies relied on machine learning and deep learning approaches for spam classification, but these approaches have two limitations. Machine learning models require manual feature engineering, whereas deep neural networks require a high computational cost. This paper introduces a dynamic deep ensemble model for spam detection that adjusts its complexity and extracts features automatically. The proposed model utilizes convolutional and pooling layers for feature extraction along with base classifiers such as random forests and extremely randomized trees for classifying texts into spam or legitimate ones. Moreover, the model employs ensemble learning procedures like boosting and bagging. As a result, the model achieved high precision, recall, f1-score and accuracy of 98.38%.


Deep Q-Learning based Reinforcement Learning Approach for Network Intrusion Detection

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The rise of the new generation of cyber threats demands more sophisticated and intelligent cyber defense solutions equipped with autonomous agents capable of learning to make decisions without the knowledge of human experts. Several reinforcement learning methods (e.g., Markov) for automated network intrusion tasks have been proposed in recent years. In this paper, we introduce a new generation of network intrusion detection methods that combines a Q-learning-based reinforcement learning with a deep-feed forward neural network method for network intrusion detection. Our proposed Deep Q-Learning (DQL) model provides an ongoing auto-learning capability for a network environment that can detect different types of network intrusions using an automated trial-error approach and continuously enhance its detection capabilities. We provide the details of fine-tuning different hyperparameters involved in the DQL model for more effective self-learning. According to our extensive experimental results based on the NSL-KDD dataset, we confirm that the lower discount factor which is set as 0.001 under 250 episodes of training yields the best performance results. Our experimental results also show that our proposed DQL is highly effective in detecting different intrusion classes and outperforms other similar machine learning approaches.