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Artificial intelligence (AI) can improve various aspects of healthcare. It can help reduce annual expenditure, allow early detection of diseases, provide round-the-clock monitoring for chronic disorders, and help limit the exposure of healthcare professionals in contagious environments. The use of AI in healthcare systems in Africa, in particular, can eliminate inefficiencies such as misdiagnosis, shortage in healthcare workers, and wait and recovery time. However, it is important to safeguard against issues such as privacy breaches, or lack of personalised care and accessibility. The central tenet for an AI framework must be ethics. This brief discusses the benefits and challenges of introducing AI in Africa's healthcare sector and suggests how policymakers can strike a balance between allowing innovation and protecting data. This paper is for ORF's Centre for New Economic Diplomacy (CNED).