Modeling Trust in Human-Robot Interaction: A Survey Artificial Intelligence

As the autonomy and capabilities of robotic systems increase, they are expected to play the role of teammates rather than tools and interact with human collaborators in a more realistic manner, creating a more human-like relationship. Given the impact of trust observed in human-robot interaction (HRI), appropriate trust in robotic collaborators is one of the leading factors influencing the performance of human-robot interaction. Team performance can be diminished if people do not trust robots appropriately by disusing or misusing them based on limited experience. Therefore, trust in HRI needs to be calibrated properly, rather than maximized, to let the formation of an appropriate level of trust in human collaborators. For trust calibration in HRI, trust needs to be modeled first. There are many reviews on factors affecting trust in HRI, however, as there are no reviews concentrated on different trust models, in this paper, we review different techniques and methods for trust modeling in HRI. We also present a list of potential directions for further research and some challenges that need to be addressed in future work on human-robot trust modeling.

Trust and Cognitive Load During Human-Robot Interaction Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents an exploratory study to understand the relationship between a humans' cognitive load, trust, and anthropomorphism during human-robot interaction. To understand the relationship, we created a \say{Matching the Pair} game that participants could play collaboratively with one of two robot types, Husky or Pepper. The goal was to understand if humans would trust the robot as a teammate while being in the game-playing situation that demanded a high level of cognitive load. Using a humanoid vs. a technical robot, we also investigated the impact of physical anthropomorphism and we furthermore tested the impact of robot error rate on subsequent judgments and behavior. Our results showed that there was an inversely proportional relationship between trust and cognitive load, suggesting that as the amount of cognitive load increased in the participants, their ratings of trust decreased. We also found a triple interaction impact between robot-type, error-rate and participant's ratings of trust. We found that participants perceived Pepper to be more trustworthy in comparison with the Husky robot after playing the game with both robots under high error-rate condition. On the contrary, Husky was perceived as more trustworthy than Pepper when it was depicted as featuring a low error-rate. Our results are interesting and call further investigation of the impact of physical anthropomorphism in combination with variable error-rates of the robot.

Action Prediction in Humans and Robots Artificial Intelligence

Efficient action prediction is of central importance for the fluent workflow between humans and equally so for human-robot interaction. To achieve prediction, actions can be encoded by a series of events, where every event corresponds to a change in a (static or dynamic) relation between some of the objects in a scene. Manipulation actions and others can be uniquely encoded this way and only, on average, less than 60% of the time series has to pass until an action can be predicted. Using a virtual reality setup and testing ten different manipulation actions, here we show that in most cases humans predict actions at the same event as the algorithm. In addition, we perform an in-depth analysis about the temporal gain resulting from such predictions when chaining actions and show in some robotic experiments that the percentage gain for humans and robots is approximately equal. Thus, if robots use this algorithm then their prediction-moments will be compatible to those of their human interaction partners, which should much benefit natural human-robot collaboration.