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Computer Vision - Richard Szeliski

#artificialintelligence

As humans, we perceive the three-dimensional structure of the world around us with apparent ease. Think of how vivid the three-dimensional percept is when you look at a vase of flowers sitting on the table next to you. You can tell the shape and translucency of each petal through the subtle patterns of light and shading that play across its surface and effortlessly segment each flower from the background of the scene (Figure 1.1). Looking at a framed group por- trait, you can easily count (and name) all of the people in the picture and even guess at their emotions from their facial appearance. Perceptual psychologists have spent decades trying to understand how the visual system works and, even though they can devise optical illusions1 to tease apart some of its principles (Figure 1.3), a complete solution to this puzzle remains elusive (Marr 1982; Palmer 1999; Livingstone 2008).


Cyber Criminals vs Robots

#artificialintelligence

What happens when cyber criminals face robots? What happens when they use robots? How will offensive and defensive strategies of cybersecurity evolve as artificial intelligence continues to grow? Both artificial intelligence and cybersecurity have consistently landed in the top charts of fastest growing industries year after year¹². The 2 fields overlap in many areas and will undoubtedly continue to do so for years to come. For this article, I have narrowed my scope to a specific use case, intrusion detection. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is software that monitors a company's network for malicious activity. I dive into AI's role in Intrusion Detection Systems, code my own IDS using machine learning, and further demonstrate how it can be used to assist threat hunters.


Impact of Imputation Strategies on Fairness in Machine Learning

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Research on Fairness and Bias Mitigation in Machine Learning often uses a set of reference datasets for the design and evaluation of novel approaches or definitions. While these datasets are well structured and useful for the comparison of various approaches, they do not reflect that datasets commonly used in real-world applications can have missing values. When such missing values are encountered, the use of imputation strategies is commonplace. However, as imputation strategies potentially alter the distribution of data they can also affect the performance, and potentially the fairness, of the resulting predictions, a topic not yet well understood in the fairness literature. In this article, we investigate the impact of different imputation strategies on classical performance and fairness in classification settings. We find that the selected imputation strategy, along with other factors including the type of classification algorithm, can significantly affect performance and fairness outcomes. The results of our experiments indicate that the choice of imputation strategy is an important factor when considering fairness in Machine Learning. We also provide some insights and guidance for researchers to help navigate imputation approaches for fairness.


Mental Stress Detection using Data from Wearable and Non-wearable Sensors: A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents a comprehensive review of methods covering significant subjective and objective human stress detection techniques available in the literature. The methods for measuring human stress responses could include subjective questionnaires (developed by psychologists) and objective markers observed using data from wearable and non-wearable sensors. In particular, wearable sensor-based methods commonly use data from electroencephalography, electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electromyography, electrodermal activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, and photoplethysmography both individually and in multimodal fusion strategies. Whereas, methods based on non-wearable sensors include strategies such as analyzing pupil dilation and speech, smartphone data, eye movement, body posture, and thermal imaging. Whenever a stressful situation is encountered by an individual, physiological, physical, or behavioral changes are induced which help in coping with the challenge at hand. A wide range of studies has attempted to establish a relationship between these stressful situations and the response of human beings by using different kinds of psychological, physiological, physical, and behavioral measures. Inspired by the lack of availability of a definitive verdict about the relationship of human stress with these different kinds of markers, a detailed survey about human stress detection methods is conducted in this paper. In particular, we explore how stress detection methods can benefit from artificial intelligence utilizing relevant data from various sources. This review will prove to be a reference document that would provide guidelines for future research enabling effective detection of human stress conditions.


Introducing explainable supervised machine learning into interactive feedback loops for statistical production system

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Statistical production systems cover multiple steps from the collection, aggregation, and integration of data to tasks like data quality assurance and dissemination. While the context of data quality assurance is one of the most promising fields for applying machine learning, the lack of curated and labeled training data is often a limiting factor. The statistical production system for the Centralised Securities Database features an interactive feedback loop between data collected by the European Central Bank and data quality assurance performed by data quality managers at National Central Banks. The quality assurance feedback loop is based on a set of rule-based checks for raising exceptions, upon which the user either confirms the data or corrects an actual error. In this paper we use the information received from this feedback loop to optimize the exceptions presented to the National Central Banks thereby improving the quality of exceptions generated and the time consumed on the system by the users authenticating those exceptions. For this approach we make use of explainable supervised machine learning to (a) identify the types of exceptions and (b) to prioritize which exceptions are more likely to require an intervention or correction by the NCBs. Furthermore, we provide an explainable AI taxonomy aiming to identify the different explainable AI needs that arose during the project.


The impact of feature importance methods on the interpretation of defect classifiers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Abstract--Classifier specific (CS) and classifier agnostic (CA) feature importance methods are widely used (often interchangeably) by prior studies to derive feature importance ranks from a defect classifier. However, different feature importance methods are likely to compute different feature importance ranks even for the same dataset and classifier. Hence such interchangeable use of feature importance methods can lead to conclusion instabilities unless there is a strong agreement among different methods. Therefore, in this paper, we evaluate the agreement between the feature importance ranks associated with the studied classifiers through a case study of 18 software projects and six commonly used classifiers. We find that: 1) The computed feature importance ranks by CA and CS methods do not always strongly agree with each other. Such findings raise concerns about the stability of conclusions across replicated studies. We further observe that the commonly used defect datasets are rife with feature interactions and these feature interactions impact the computed feature importance ranks of the CS methods (not the CA methods). We demonstrate that removing these feature interactions, even with simple methods like CFS improves agreement between the computed feature importance ranks of CA and CS methods. In light of our findings, we provide guidelines for stakeholders and practitioners when performing model interpretation and directions for future research, e.g., future research is needed to investigate the impact of advanced feature interaction removal methods on computed feature importance ranks of different CS methods. We note, however, that a CS method is not always readily available for Defect classifiers are widely used by many large software corporations a given classifier. Defect classifiers are commonly and deep neural networks do not have a widely accepted CS interpreted to uncover insights to improve software quality. Therefore it is the feature importance ranks of different classifiers is pivotal that these generated insights are reliable. Such CA methods measure the contribution of each feature a feature importance method to compute a ranking of feature towards a classifier's predictions. These measure the contribution of each feature by effecting changes to feature importance ranks reflect the order in which the studied that particular feature in the dataset and observing its impact on features contribute to the predictive capability of the studied the outcome. The primary advantage of CA methods is that they classifier [14].


Network-level Safety Metrics for Overall Traffic Safety Assessment: A Case Study

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Driving safety analysis has recently witnessed unprecedented results due to advances in computation frameworks, connected vehicle technology, new generation sensors, and artificial intelligence (AI). Particularly, the recent advances performance of deep learning (DL) methods realized higher levels of safety for autonomous vehicles and empowered volume imagery processing for driving safety analysis. An important application of DL methods is extracting driving safety metrics from traffic imagery. However, the majority of current methods use safety metrics for micro-scale analysis of individual crash incidents or near-crash events, which does not provide insightful guidelines for the overall network-level traffic management. On the other hand, large-scale safety assessment efforts mainly emphasize spatial and temporal distributions of crashes, while not always revealing the safety violations that cause crashes. To bridge these two perspectives, we define a new set of network-level safety metrics for the overall safety assessment of traffic flow by processing imagery taken by roadside infrastructure sensors. An integrative analysis of the safety metrics and crash data reveals the insightful temporal and spatial correlation between the representative network-level safety metrics and the crash frequency. The analysis is performed using two video cameras in the state of Arizona along with a 5-year crash report obtained from the Arizona Department of Transportation. The results confirm that network-level safety metrics can be used by the traffic management teams to equip traffic monitoring systems with advanced AI-based risk analysis, and timely traffic flow control decisions.


Monitoring Model Deterioration with Explainable Uncertainty Estimation via Non-parametric Bootstrap

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Monitoring machine learning models once they are deployed is challenging. It is even more challenging to decide when to retrain models in real-case scenarios when labeled data is beyond reach, and monitoring performance metrics becomes unfeasible. In this work, we use non-parametric bootstrapped uncertainty estimates and SHAP values to provide explainable uncertainty estimation as a technique that aims to monitor the deterioration of machine learning models in deployment environments, as well as determine the source of model deterioration when target labels are not available. Classical methods are purely aimed at detecting distribution shift, which can lead to false positives in the sense that the model has not deteriorated despite a shift in the data distribution. To estimate model uncertainty we construct prediction intervals using a novel bootstrap method, which improves upon the work of Kumar & Srivastava (2012). We show that both our model deterioration detection system as well as our uncertainty estimation method achieve better performance than the current state-of-the-art. Finally, we use explainable AI techniques to gain an understanding of the drivers of model deterioration. We release an open source Python package, doubt, which implements our proposed methods, as well as the code used to reproduce our experiments.


MeltpoolNet: Melt pool Characteristic Prediction in Metal Additive Manufacturing Using Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Characterizing meltpool shape and geometry is essential in metal Additive Manufacturing (MAM) to control the printing process and avoid defects. Predicting meltpool flaws based on process parameters and powder material is difficult due to the complex nature of MAM process. Machine learning (ML) techniques can be useful in connecting process parameters to the type of flaws in the meltpool. In this work, we introduced a comprehensive framework for benchmarking ML for melt pool characterization. An extensive experimental dataset has been collected from more than 80 MAM articles containing MAM processing conditions, materials, meltpool dimensions, meltpool modes and flaw types. We introduced physics-aware MAM featurization, versatile ML models, and evaluation metrics to create a comprehensive learning framework for meltpool defect and geometry prediction. This benchmark can serve as a basis for melt pool control and process optimization. In addition, data-driven explicit models have been identified to estimate meltpool geometry from process parameters and material properties which outperform Rosenthal estimation for meltpool geometry while maintaining interpretability.


Fake Hilsa Fish Detection Using Machine Vision

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Hilsa is the national fish of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is earning a lot of foreign currency by exporting this fish. Unfortunately, in recent days, some unscrupulous businessmen are selling fake Hilsa fishes to gain profit. The Sardines and Sardinella are the most sold in the market as Hilsa. The government agency of Bangladesh, namely Bangladesh Food Safety Authority said that these fake Hilsa fish contain high levels of cadmium and lead which are detrimental for humans. In this research, we have proposed a method that can readily identify original Hilsa fish and fake Hilsa fish. Based on the research available on online literature, we are the first to do research on identifying original Hilsa fish. We have collected more than 16,000 images of original and counterfeit Hilsa fish. To classify these images, we have used several deep learning-based models. Then, the performance has been compared between them. Among those models, DenseNet201 achieved the highest accuracy of 97.02%.