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Computer Vision - Richard Szeliski

#artificialintelligence

As humans, we perceive the three-dimensional structure of the world around us with apparent ease. Think of how vivid the three-dimensional percept is when you look at a vase of flowers sitting on the table next to you. You can tell the shape and translucency of each petal through the subtle patterns of light and shading that play across its surface and effortlessly segment each flower from the background of the scene (Figure 1.1). Looking at a framed group por- trait, you can easily count (and name) all of the people in the picture and even guess at their emotions from their facial appearance. Perceptual psychologists have spent decades trying to understand how the visual system works and, even though they can devise optical illusions1 to tease apart some of its principles (Figure 1.3), a complete solution to this puzzle remains elusive (Marr 1982; Palmer 1999; Livingstone 2008).


Forecasting: theory and practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.


Artificial Intellgence -- Application in Life Sciences and Beyond. The Upper Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium UR-AI 2021

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


An overview of event extraction and its applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the rapid development of information technology, online platforms have produced enormous text resources. As a particular form of Information Extraction (IE), Event Extraction (EE) has gained increasing popularity due to its ability to automatically extract events from human language. However, there are limited literature surveys on event extraction. Existing review works either spend much effort describing the details of various approaches or focus on a particular field. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art event extraction methods and their applications from text, including closed-domain and open-domain event extraction. A trait of this survey is that it provides an overview in moderate complexity, avoiding involving too many details of particular approaches. This study focuses on discussing the common characters, application fields, advantages, and disadvantages of representative works, ignoring the specificities of individual approaches. Finally, we summarize the common issues, current solutions, and future research directions. We hope this work could help researchers and practitioners obtain a quick overview of recent event extraction.


Modelling the transition to a low-carbon energy supply

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A transition to a low-carbon electricity supply is crucial to limit the impacts of climate change. Reducing carbon emissions could help prevent the world from reaching a tipping point, where runaway emissions are likely. Runaway emissions could lead to extremes in weather conditions around the world -- especially in problematic regions unable to cope with these conditions. However, the movement to a low-carbon energy supply can not happen instantaneously due to the existing fossil-fuel infrastructure and the requirement to maintain a reliable energy supply. Therefore, a low-carbon transition is required, however, the decisions various stakeholders should make over the coming decades to reduce these carbon emissions are not obvious. This is due to many long-term uncertainties, such as electricity, fuel and generation costs, human behaviour and the size of electricity demand. A well choreographed low-carbon transition is, therefore, required between all of the heterogenous actors in the system, as opposed to changing the behaviour of a single, centralised actor. The objective of this thesis is to create a novel, open-source agent-based model to better understand the manner in which the whole electricity market reacts to different factors using state-of-the-art machine learning and artificial intelligence methods. In contrast to other works, this thesis looks at both the long-term and short-term impact that different behaviours have on the electricity market by using these state-of-the-art methods.


Trusted Artificial Intelligence: Towards Certification of Machine Learning Applications

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Artificial Intelligence is one of the fastest growing technologies of the 21st century and accompanies us in our daily lives when interacting with technical applications. However, reliance on such technical systems is crucial for their widespread applicability and acceptance. The societal tools to express reliance are usually formalized by lawful regulations, i.e., standards, norms, accreditations, and certificates. Therefore, the T\"UV AUSTRIA Group in cooperation with the Institute for Machine Learning at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, proposes a certification process and an audit catalog for Machine Learning applications. We are convinced that our approach can serve as the foundation for the certification of applications that use Machine Learning and Deep Learning, the techniques that drive the current revolution in Artificial Intelligence. While certain high-risk areas, such as fully autonomous robots in workspaces shared with humans, are still some time away from certification, we aim to cover low-risk applications with our certification procedure. Our holistic approach attempts to analyze Machine Learning applications from multiple perspectives to evaluate and verify the aspects of secure software development, functional requirements, data quality, data protection, and ethics. Inspired by existing work, we introduce four criticality levels to map the criticality of a Machine Learning application regarding the impact of its decisions on people, environment, and organizations. Currently, the audit catalog can be applied to low-risk applications within the scope of supervised learning as commonly encountered in industry. Guided by field experience, scientific developments, and market demands, the audit catalog will be extended and modified accordingly.


Patterns, predictions, and actions: A story about machine learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This graduate textbook on machine learning tells a story of how patterns in data support predictions and consequential actions. Starting with the foundations of decision making, we cover representation, optimization, and generalization as the constituents of supervised learning. A chapter on datasets as benchmarks examines their histories and scientific bases. Self-contained introductions to causality, the practice of causal inference, sequential decision making, and reinforcement learning equip the reader with concepts and tools to reason about actions and their consequences. Throughout, the text discusses historical context and societal impact. We invite readers from all backgrounds; some experience with probability, calculus, and linear algebra suffices.


Noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) algorithms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A universal fault-tolerant quantum computer that can solve efficiently problems such as integer factorization and unstructured database search requires millions of qubits with low error rates and long coherence times. While the experimental advancement towards realizing such devices will potentially take decades of research, noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) computers already exist. These computers are composed of hundreds of noisy qubits, i.e. qubits that are not error-corrected, and therefore perform imperfect operations in a limited coherence time. In the search for quantum advantage with these devices, algorithms have been proposed for applications in various disciplines spanning physics, machine learning, quantum chemistry and combinatorial optimization. The goal of such algorithms is to leverage the limited available resources to perform classically challenging tasks. In this review, we provide a thorough summary of NISQ computational paradigms and algorithms. We discuss the key structure of these algorithms, their limitations, and advantages. We additionally provide a comprehensive overview of various benchmarking and software tools useful for programming and testing NISQ devices.


A Kernel Two-Sample Test for Functional Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Nonparametric two-sample tests for equality of distributions are widely studied in statistics, driven by applications in goodness-of-fit tests, anomaly and change-point detection and clustering. Classical examples of such tests include the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test [41, 69, 62] and Wald-Wolfowitz runs test [84] with subsequent multivariate extensions [25]. Due to advances in the ability to collect large amounts of real time or spatially distributed data there is a need to develop statistical methods appropriate for functional data, where each data sample is a discretised function. Such data has been studied for decades in the Functional Data Analysis (FDA) literature [32, 35] particularly in the context of analysing populations of time series, or in statistical shape analysis [45]. More recently, due to this modern abundance of functional data, increased study has been made in the machine learning literature for algorithms suited to such data [7, 15, 37, 12, 88].


Variable selection for Gaussian process regression through a sparse projection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper presents a new variable selection approach integrated with Gaussian process (GP) regression. We consider a sparse projection of input variables and a general stationary covariance model that depends on the Euclidean distance between the projected features. The sparse projection matrix is considered as an unknown parameter. We propose a forward stagewise approach with embedded gradient descent steps to co-optimize the parameter with other covariance parameters based on the maximization of a non-convex marginal likelihood function with a concave sparsity penalty, and some convergence properties of the algorithm are provided. The proposed model covers a broader class of stationary covariance functions than the existing automatic relevance determination approaches, and the solution approach is more computationally feasible than the existing MCMC sampling procedures for the automatic relevance parameter estimation with a sparsity prior. The approach is evaluated for a large number of simulated scenarios. The choice of tuning parameters and the accuracy of the parameter estimation are evaluated with the simulation study. In the comparison to some chosen benchmark approaches, the proposed approach has provided a better accuracy in the variable selection. It is applied to an important problem of identifying environmental factors that affect an atmospheric corrosion of metal alloys.