Digitization is penetrating more and more areas of life. Tasks are increasingly being completed digitally, and are therefore not only fulfilled faster, more efficiently but also more purposefully and successfully. The rapid developments in the field of artificial intelligence in recent years have played a major role in this, as they brought up many helpful approaches to build on. At the same time, the eyes, their movements, and the meaning of these movements are being progressively researched. The combination of these developments has led to exciting approaches. In this dissertation, I present some of these approaches which I worked on during my Ph.D. First, I provide insight into the development of models that use artificial intelligence to connect eye movements with visual expertise. This is demonstrated for two domains or rather groups of people: athletes in decision-making actions and surgeons in arthroscopic procedures. The resulting models can be considered as digital diagnostic models for automatic expertise recognition. Furthermore, I show approaches that investigate the transferability of eye movement patterns to different expertise domains and subsequently, important aspects of techniques for generalization. Finally, I address the temporal detection of confusion based on eye movement data. The results suggest the use of the resulting model as a clock signal for possible digital assistance options in the training of young professionals. An interesting aspect of my research is that I was able to draw on very valuable data from DFB youth elite athletes as well as on long-standing experts in arthroscopy. In particular, the work with the DFB data attracted the interest of radio and print media, namely DeutschlandFunk Nova and SWR DasDing. All resulting articles presented here have been published in internationally renowned journals or at conferences.
Conventional machine learning (ML) relies heavily on manual design from machine learning experts to decide learning tasks, data, models, optimization algorithms, and evaluation metrics, which is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and cannot learn autonomously like humans. In education science, self-directed learning, where human learners select learning tasks and materials on their own without requiring hands-on guidance, has been shown to be more effective than passive teacher-guided learning. Inspired by the concept of self-directed human learning, we introduce the principal concept of Self-directed Machine Learning (SDML) and propose a framework for SDML. Specifically, we design SDML as a self-directed learning process guided by self-awareness, including internal awareness and external awareness. Our proposed SDML process benefits from self task selection, self data selection, self model selection, self optimization strategy selection and self evaluation metric selection through self-awareness without human guidance. Meanwhile, the learning performance of the SDML process serves as feedback to further improve self-awareness. We propose a mathematical formulation for SDML based on multi-level optimization. Furthermore, we present case studies together with potential applications of SDML, followed by discussing future research directions. We expect that SDML could enable machines to conduct human-like self-directed learning and provide a new perspective towards artificial general intelligence.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.
In this paper, we study knowledge tracing in the domain of programming education and make two important contributions. First, we harvest and publish so far the most comprehensive dataset, namely BePKT, which covers various online behaviors in an OJ system, including programming text problems, knowledge annotations, user-submitted code and system-logged events. Second, we propose a new model PDKT to exploit the enriched context for accurate student behavior prediction. More specifically, we construct a bipartite graph for programming problem embedding, and design an improved pre-training model PLCodeBERT for code embedding, as well as a double-sequence RNN model with exponential decay attention for effective feature fusion. Experimental results on the new dataset BePKT show that our proposed model establishes state-of-the-art performance in programming knowledge tracing. In addition, we verify that our code embedding strategy based on PLCodeBERT is complementary to existing knowledge tracing models to further enhance their accuracy. As a side product, PLCodeBERT also results in better performance in other programming-related tasks such as code clone detection.
Peer review is a widely accepted mechanism for research evaluation, playing a pivotal role in scholarly publishing. However, criticisms have long been leveled on this mechanism, mostly because of its inefficiency and subjectivity. Recent years have seen the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in assisting the peer review process. Nonetheless, with the involvement of humans, such limitations remain inevitable. In this review paper, we propose the concept of automated scholarly paper review (ASPR) and review the relevant literature and technologies to discuss the possibility of achieving a full-scale computerized review process. We further look into the challenges in ASPR with the existing technologies. On the basis of the review and discussion, we conclude that there are already corresponding research and technologies at each stage of ASPR. This verifies that ASPR can be realized in the long term as the relevant technologies continue to develop. The major difficulties in its realization lie in imperfect document parsing and representation, inadequate data, defected human-computer interaction and flawed deep logical reasoning. In the foreseeable future, ASPR and peer review will coexist in a reinforcing manner before ASPR is able to fully undertake the reviewing workload from humans.
AI is widely thought to be poised to transform business, yet current perceptions of the scope of this transformation may be myopic. Recent progress in natural language processing involving transformer language models (TLMs) offers a potential avenue for AI-driven business and societal transformation that is beyond the scope of what most currently foresee. We review this recent progress as well as recent literature utilizing text mining in top IS journals to develop an outline for how future IS research can benefit from these new techniques. Our review of existing IS literature reveals that suboptimal text mining techniques are prevalent and that the more advanced TLMs could be applied to enhance and increase IS research involving text data, and to enable new IS research topics, thus creating more value for the research community. This is possible because these techniques make it easier to develop very powerful custom systems and their performance is superior to existing methods for a wide range of tasks and applications. Further, multilingual language models make possible higher quality text analytics for research in multiple languages. We also identify new avenues for IS research, like language user interfaces, that may offer even greater potential for future IS research.
Research towards creating systems for automatic grading of student answers to quiz and exam questions in educational settings has been ongoing since 1966. Over the years, the problem was divided into many categories. Among them, grading text answers were divided into short answer grading, and essay grading. The goal of this work was to develop an ML-based short answer grading system. I hence built a system which uses finetuning on Roberta Large Model pretrained on STS benchmark dataset and have also created an interface to show the production readiness of the system. I evaluated the performance of the system on the Mohler extended dataset and SciEntsBank Dataset. The developed system achieved a Pearsons Correlation of 0.82 and RMSE of 0.7 on the Mohler Dataset which beats the SOTA performance on this dataset which is correlation of 0.805 and RMSE of 0.793. Additionally, Pearsons Correlation of 0.79 and RMSE of 0.56 was achieved on the SciEntsBank Dataset, which only reconfirms the robustness of the system. A few observations during achieving these results included usage of batch size of 1 produced better results than using batch size of 16 or 32 and using huber loss as loss function performed well on this regression task. The system was tried and tested on train and validation splits using various random seeds and still has been tweaked to achieve a minimum of 0.76 of correlation and a maximum 0.15 (out of 1) RMSE on any dataset.
Bommasani, Rishi, Hudson, Drew A., Adeli, Ehsan, Altman, Russ, Arora, Simran, von Arx, Sydney, Bernstein, Michael S., Bohg, Jeannette, Bosselut, Antoine, Brunskill, Emma, Brynjolfsson, Erik, Buch, Shyamal, Card, Dallas, Castellon, Rodrigo, Chatterji, Niladri, Chen, Annie, Creel, Kathleen, Davis, Jared Quincy, Demszky, Dora, Donahue, Chris, Doumbouya, Moussa, Durmus, Esin, Ermon, Stefano, Etchemendy, John, Ethayarajh, Kawin, Fei-Fei, Li, Finn, Chelsea, Gale, Trevor, Gillespie, Lauren, Goel, Karan, Goodman, Noah, Grossman, Shelby, Guha, Neel, Hashimoto, Tatsunori, Henderson, Peter, Hewitt, John, Ho, Daniel E., Hong, Jenny, Hsu, Kyle, Huang, Jing, Icard, Thomas, Jain, Saahil, Jurafsky, Dan, Kalluri, Pratyusha, Karamcheti, Siddharth, Keeling, Geoff, Khani, Fereshte, Khattab, Omar, Kohd, Pang Wei, Krass, Mark, Krishna, Ranjay, Kuditipudi, Rohith, Kumar, Ananya, Ladhak, Faisal, Lee, Mina, Lee, Tony, Leskovec, Jure, Levent, Isabelle, Li, Xiang Lisa, Li, Xuechen, Ma, Tengyu, Malik, Ali, Manning, Christopher D., Mirchandani, Suvir, Mitchell, Eric, Munyikwa, Zanele, Nair, Suraj, Narayan, Avanika, Narayanan, Deepak, Newman, Ben, Nie, Allen, Niebles, Juan Carlos, Nilforoshan, Hamed, Nyarko, Julian, Ogut, Giray, Orr, Laurel, Papadimitriou, Isabel, Park, Joon Sung, Piech, Chris, Portelance, Eva, Potts, Christopher, Raghunathan, Aditi, Reich, Rob, Ren, Hongyu, Rong, Frieda, Roohani, Yusuf, Ruiz, Camilo, Ryan, Jack, Ré, Christopher, Sadigh, Dorsa, Sagawa, Shiori, Santhanam, Keshav, Shih, Andy, Srinivasan, Krishnan, Tamkin, Alex, Taori, Rohan, Thomas, Armin W., Tramèr, Florian, Wang, Rose E., Wang, William, Wu, Bohan, Wu, Jiajun, Wu, Yuhuai, Xie, Sang Michael, Yasunaga, Michihiro, You, Jiaxuan, Zaharia, Matei, Zhang, Michael, Zhang, Tianyi, Zhang, Xikun, Zhang, Yuhui, Zheng, Lucia, Zhou, Kaitlyn, Liang, Percy
AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.
This chapter provides an overview of the different Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems that are being used in contemporary digital tools for Mathematics Education (ME). It is aimed at researchers in AI and Machine Learning (ML), for whom we shed some light on the specific technologies that are being used in educational applications; and at researchers in ME, for whom we clarify: i) what the possibilities of the current AI technologies are, ii) what is still out of reach and iii) what is to be expected in the near future. We start our analysis by establishing a high-level taxonomy of AI tools that are found as components in digital ME applications. Then, we describe in detail how these AI tools, and in particular ML, are being used in two key applications, specifically AI-based calculators and intelligent tutoring systems. We finish the chapter with a discussion about student modeling systems and their relationship to artificial general intelligence.
This is an intermediate-level free artificial intelligence course. This course will teach the basics of modern AI as well as some of the representative applications of AI including machine learning, probabilistic reasoning, robotics, computer vision, and natural language processing. To understand this course, you should have some previous understanding of probability theory and linear algebra.