Koomey's law This law posits that the energy efficiency of computation doubles roughly every one-and-a-half years (see Figure 1–7). In other words, the energy necessary for the same amount of computation halves in that time span. To visualize the exponential impact this has, consider the face that a fully charged MacBook Air, when applying the energy efficiency of computation of 1992, would completely drain its battery in a mere 1.5 seconds. According to Koomey's law, the energy requirements for computation in embedded devices is shrinking to the point that harvesting the required energy from ambient sources like solar power and thermal energy should suffice to power the computation necessary in many applications. Metcalfe's law This law has nothing to do with chips, but all to do with connectivity. Formulated by Robert Metcalfe as he invented Ethernet, the law essentially states that the value of a network increases exponentially with regard to the number of its nodes (see Figure 1–8).
The relevance of the video is that the browser identified the application being used by the IAI as Google Earth and, according to the OSC 2006 report, the Arabic-language caption reads Islamic Army in Iraq/The Military Engineering Unit – Preparations for Rocket Attack, the video was recorded in 5/1/2006, we provide, in Appendix A, a reproduction of the screenshot picture made available in the OSC report. Now, prior to the release of this video demonstration of the use of Google Earth to plan attacks, in accordance with the OSC 2006 report, in the OSC-monitored online forums, discussions took place on the use of Google Earth as a GEOINT tool for terrorist planning. On August 5, 2005 the user "Al-Illiktrony" posted a message to the Islamic Renewal Organization forum titled A Gift for the Mujahidin, a Program To Enable You to Watch Cities of the World Via Satellite, in this post the author dedicated Google Earth to the mujahidin brothers and to Shaykh Muhammad al-Mas'ari, the post was replied in the forum by "Al-Mushtaq al-Jannah" warning that Google programs retain complete information about their users. This is a relevant issue, however, there are two caveats, given the amount of Google Earth users, it may be difficult for Google to flag a jihadist using the functionality in time to prevent an attack plan, one possible solution would be for Google to flag computers based on searched websites and locations, for instance to flag computers that visit certain critical sites, but this is a problem when landmarks are used, furthermore, and this is the second caveat, one may not use one's own computer to produce the search or even mask the IP address. On October 3, 2005, as described in the OSC 2006 report, in a reply to a posting by Saddam Al-Arab on the Baghdad al-Rashid forum requesting the identification of a roughly sketched map, "Almuhannad" posted a link to a site that provided a free download of Google Earth, suggesting that the satellite imagery from Google's service could help identify the sketch.
This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute (MAIEI) covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second half of 2021 in the field of AI ethics. Particular emphasis is placed on an "Analysis of the AI Ecosystem", "Privacy", "Bias", "Social Media and Problematic Information", "AI Design and Governance", "Laws and Regulations", "Trends", and other areas covered in the "Outside the Boxes" section. The two AI spotlights feature application pieces on "Constructing and Deconstructing Gender with AI-Generated Art" as well as "Will an Artificial Intellichef be Cooking Your Next Meal at a Michelin Star Restaurant?". Given MAIEI's mission to democratize AI, submissions from external collaborators have featured, such as pieces on the "Challenges of AI Development in Vietnam: Funding, Talent and Ethics" and using "Representation and Imagination for Preventing AI Harms". The report is a comprehensive overview of what the key issues in the field of AI ethics were in 2021, what trends are emergent, what gaps exist, and a peek into what to expect from the field of AI ethics in 2022. It is a resource for researchers and practitioners alike in the field to set their research and development agendas to make contributions to the field of AI ethics.
This special issue interrogates the meaning and impacts of "tech ethics": the embedding of ethics into digital technology research, development, use, and governance. In response to concerns about the social harms associated with digital technologies, many individuals and institutions have articulated the need for a greater emphasis on ethics in digital technology. Yet as more groups embrace the concept of ethics, critical discourses have emerged questioning whose ethics are being centered, whether "ethics" is the appropriate frame for improving technology, and what it means to develop "ethical" technology in practice. This interdisciplinary issue takes up these questions, interrogating the relationships among ethics, technology, and society in action. This special issue engages with the normative and contested notions of ethics itself, how ethics has been integrated with technology across domains, and potential paths forward to support more just and egalitarian technology. Rather than starting from philosophical theories, the authors in this issue orient their articles around the real-world discourses and impacts of tech ethics--i.e., tech ethics in action.
Sen, Jaydip, Mehtab, Sidra, Sen, Rajdeep, Dutta, Abhishek, Kherwa, Pooja, Ahmed, Saheel, Berry, Pranay, Khurana, Sahil, Singh, Sonali, Cadotte, David W. W, Anderson, David W., Ost, Kalum J., Akinbo, Racheal S., Daramola, Oladunni A., Lainjo, Bongs
Recent times are witnessing rapid development in machine learning algorithm systems, especially in reinforcement learning, natural language processing, computer and robot vision, image processing, speech, and emotional processing and understanding. In tune with the increasing importance and relevance of machine learning models, algorithms, and their applications, and with the emergence of more innovative uses cases of deep learning and artificial intelligence, the current volume presents a few innovative research works and their applications in real world, such as stock trading, medical and healthcare systems, and software automation. The chapters in the book illustrate how machine learning and deep learning algorithms and models are designed, optimized, and deployed. The volume will be useful for advanced graduate and doctoral students, researchers, faculty members of universities, practicing data scientists and data engineers, professionals, and consultants working on the broad areas of machine learning, deep learning, and artificial intelligence.
This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second quarter of 2021 in the field of AI ethics with a special emphasis on "Environment and AI", "Creativity and AI", and "Geopolitics and AI." The report also features an exclusive piece titled "Critical Race Quantum Computer" that applies ideas from quantum physics to explain the complexities of human characteristics and how they can and should shape our interactions with each other. The report also features special contributions on the subject of pedagogy in AI ethics, sociology and AI ethics, and organizational challenges to implementing AI ethics in practice. Given MAIEI's mission to highlight scholars from around the world working on AI ethics issues, the report also features two spotlights sharing the work of scholars operating in Singapore and Mexico helping to shape policy measures as they relate to the responsible use of technology. The report also has an extensive section covering the gamut of issues when it comes to the societal impacts of AI covering areas of bias, privacy, transparency, accountability, fairness, interpretability, disinformation, policymaking, law, regulations, and moral philosophy.
There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.
Knowledge Graphs (KGs) have made a qualitative leap and effected a real revolution in knowledge representation. This is leveraged by the underlying structure of the KG which underpins a better comprehension, reasoning and interpreting of knowledge for both human and machine. Therefore, KGs continue to be used as a main driver to tackle a plethora of real-life problems in dissimilar domains. However, there is no consensus on a plausible and inclusive definition to domain KG. Further, in conjunction with several limitations and deficiencies, various domain KG construction approaches are far from perfection. This survey is the first to provide an inclusive definition to the notion of domain KG. Also, a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art approaches drawn from academic works relevant to seven dissimilar domains of knowledge is provided. The scrutiny of the current approaches reveals a correlated array of limitations and deficiencies. The set of improvements to address the limitations of the current approaches are introduced followed by recommendations and opportunities for future research directions.
Over the next few years, society as a whole will need to address what core values it wishes to protect when dealing with technology. Anthropology, a field dedicated to the very notion of what it means to be human, can provide some interesting insights into how to cope and tackle these changes in our Western society and other areas of the world. It can be challenging for social science practitioners to grasp and keep up with the pace of technological innovation, with many being unfamiliar with the jargon of AI. This short guide serves as both an introduction to AI ethics and social science and anthropological perspectives on the development of AI. It intends to provide those unfamiliar with the field with an insight into the societal impact of AI systems and how, in turn, these systems can lead us to rethink how our world operates.
Kairouz, Peter, McMahan, H. Brendan, Avent, Brendan, Bellet, Aurélien, Bennis, Mehdi, Bhagoji, Arjun Nitin, Bonawitz, Keith, Charles, Zachary, Cormode, Graham, Cummings, Rachel, D'Oliveira, Rafael G. L., Rouayheb, Salim El, Evans, David, Gardner, Josh, Garrett, Zachary, Gascón, Adrià, Ghazi, Badih, Gibbons, Phillip B., Gruteser, Marco, Harchaoui, Zaid, He, Chaoyang, He, Lie, Huo, Zhouyuan, Hutchinson, Ben, Hsu, Justin, Jaggi, Martin, Javidi, Tara, Joshi, Gauri, Khodak, Mikhail, Konečný, Jakub, Korolova, Aleksandra, Koushanfar, Farinaz, Koyejo, Sanmi, Lepoint, Tancrède, Liu, Yang, Mittal, Prateek, Mohri, Mehryar, Nock, Richard, Özgür, Ayfer, Pagh, Rasmus, Raykova, Mariana, Qi, Hang, Ramage, Daniel, Raskar, Ramesh, Song, Dawn, Song, Weikang, Stich, Sebastian U., Sun, Ziteng, Suresh, Ananda Theertha, Tramèr, Florian, Vepakomma, Praneeth, Wang, Jianyu, Xiong, Li, Xu, Zheng, Yang, Qiang, Yu, Felix X., Yu, Han, Zhao, Sen
Federated learning (FL) is a machine learning setting where many clients (e.g. mobile devices or whole organizations) collaboratively train a model under the orchestration of a central server (e.g. service provider), while keeping the training data decentralized. FL embodies the principles of focused data collection and minimization, and can mitigate many of the systemic privacy risks and costs resulting from traditional, centralized machine learning and data science approaches. Motivated by the explosive growth in FL research, this paper discusses recent advances and presents an extensive collection of open problems and challenges.