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State of AI Ethics Report (Volume 6, February 2022)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute (MAIEI) covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second half of 2021 in the field of AI ethics. Particular emphasis is placed on an "Analysis of the AI Ecosystem", "Privacy", "Bias", "Social Media and Problematic Information", "AI Design and Governance", "Laws and Regulations", "Trends", and other areas covered in the "Outside the Boxes" section. The two AI spotlights feature application pieces on "Constructing and Deconstructing Gender with AI-Generated Art" as well as "Will an Artificial Intellichef be Cooking Your Next Meal at a Michelin Star Restaurant?". Given MAIEI's mission to democratize AI, submissions from external collaborators have featured, such as pieces on the "Challenges of AI Development in Vietnam: Funding, Talent and Ethics" and using "Representation and Imagination for Preventing AI Harms". The report is a comprehensive overview of what the key issues in the field of AI ethics were in 2021, what trends are emergent, what gaps exist, and a peek into what to expect from the field of AI ethics in 2022. It is a resource for researchers and practitioners alike in the field to set their research and development agendas to make contributions to the field of AI ethics.


Technology Ethics in Action: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This special issue interrogates the meaning and impacts of "tech ethics": the embedding of ethics into digital technology research, development, use, and governance. In response to concerns about the social harms associated with digital technologies, many individuals and institutions have articulated the need for a greater emphasis on ethics in digital technology. Yet as more groups embrace the concept of ethics, critical discourses have emerged questioning whose ethics are being centered, whether "ethics" is the appropriate frame for improving technology, and what it means to develop "ethical" technology in practice. This interdisciplinary issue takes up these questions, interrogating the relationships among ethics, technology, and society in action. This special issue engages with the normative and contested notions of ethics itself, how ethics has been integrated with technology across domains, and potential paths forward to support more just and egalitarian technology. Rather than starting from philosophical theories, the authors in this issue orient their articles around the real-world discourses and impacts of tech ethics--i.e., tech ethics in action.


Palo Alto Networks updates Prisma Cloud to secure the full app lifecycle

ZDNet

Embracing the concept of DevSecOps, Palo Alto Networks on Tuesday rolled out Prisma Cloud 3.0, bringing a number of updates to the platform focused on the security of the entire application development lifecycle. That includes infrastructure as code (IaC) security, agentless security and a next-gen CASB. Palo Alto launched Prisma Cloud in 2019 as a comprehensive cloud security suite designed to govern access, protect data and secure applications consistently. Offering a comprehensive, integrated security platform has become all the more important in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic when workforces are increasingly dispersed, Palo Alto's chief product officer Lee Klarich told reporters. Prisma Cloud attempts to offer consistent network security across campuses, branches, remote offices and anywhere else.


The State of AI Ethics Report (Volume 5)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second quarter of 2021 in the field of AI ethics with a special emphasis on "Environment and AI", "Creativity and AI", and "Geopolitics and AI." The report also features an exclusive piece titled "Critical Race Quantum Computer" that applies ideas from quantum physics to explain the complexities of human characteristics and how they can and should shape our interactions with each other. The report also features special contributions on the subject of pedagogy in AI ethics, sociology and AI ethics, and organizational challenges to implementing AI ethics in practice. Given MAIEI's mission to highlight scholars from around the world working on AI ethics issues, the report also features two spotlights sharing the work of scholars operating in Singapore and Mexico helping to shape policy measures as they relate to the responsible use of technology. The report also has an extensive section covering the gamut of issues when it comes to the societal impacts of AI covering areas of bias, privacy, transparency, accountability, fairness, interpretability, disinformation, policymaking, law, regulations, and moral philosophy.


The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.


Practical UseCases of Deep Learning Techniques… Part II

#artificialintelligence

The enormous and raging wave of change that has hit our world in the last decade, has got some of us thinking and others reveling in their glory. The internet and evolving technological practices have increased possibilities. Man and machine collaboration has got us introduced to automated virtual work and communication systems everywhere in the world. Deep Learning has given birth to several real-life applications that have lessened human control and involvement in several spheres of life. The immense popularity of the Deep Learning UseCases blog was enough encouragement to look at more such UseCases.


100+ AI Use Cases & Applications in 2021: In-Depth Guide

#artificialintelligence

AI is changing every industry and business function, which results in increased interest in AI, its subdomains, and related fields such as machine learning and data science as seen below. However, we also note that since COVID-19 outbreak, interest in AI, as measured by Google queries about AI, has been stable / possibly declining. This may be due to increased interest in COVID-19 and its effects during this period. However, this depends on the specific industry and applications, we see increased interest in AI in manufacturing during the same period. As of 2018, 37% of organizations were looking to define their AI strategies. There has been significant progress since then and according to a recent O'Reilly survey, 85% of organizations are using AI. To integrate AI into your own business, you need to identify how AI can serve your business, possible use cases of AI in your business. Marketing can be summarized as reaching the customer with the right offer, the right message, at the right time, through the right channel, while continually learning. To achieve success, companies can leverage AI-powered tools to get familiar with their customers better, create more compelling content, and perform personalized marketing campaigns. AI can provide accurate insights and suggest smart marketing solutions that would directly reflect on profits with customer data. Marketing analytics: AI systems learn from, analyze, and measure marketing efforts. These solutions track media activity and provide insights into PR efforts to highlight what is driving engagement, traffic, and revenue. As a result, companies can provide better and more accurate marketing services to their customers. Besides PR efforts, AI-powered marketing analytics can lead companies to identify their customer groups more accurately.


Top 100 Artificial Intelligence Companies in the World

#artificialintelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is not just a buzzword, but a crucial part of the technology landscape. AI is changing every industry and business function, which results in increased interest in its applications, subdomains and related fields. This makes AI companies the top leaders driving the technology swift. AI helps us to optimise and automate crucial business processes, gather essential data and transform the world, one step at a time. From Google and Amazon to Apple and Microsoft, every major tech company is dedicating resources to breakthroughs in artificial intelligence. As big enterprises are busy acquiring or merging with other emerging inventions, small AI companies are also working hard to develop their own intelligent technology and services. By leveraging artificial intelligence, organizations get an innovative edge in the digital age. AI consults are also working to provide companies with expertise that can help them grow. In this digital era, AI is also a significant place for investment. AI companies are constantly developing the latest products to provide the simplest solutions. Henceforth, Analytics Insight brings you the list of top 100 AI companies that are leading the technology drive towards a better tomorrow. AEye develops advanced vision hardware, software, and algorithms that act as the eyes and visual cortex of autonomous vehicles. AEye is an artificial perception pioneer and creator of iDAR, a new form of intelligent data collection that acts as the eyes and visual cortex of autonomous vehicles. Since its demonstration of its solid state LiDAR scanner in 2013, AEye has pioneered breakthroughs in intelligent sensing. Their mission was to acquire the most information with the fewest ones and zeros. This would allow AEye to drive the automotive industry into the next realm of autonomy. Algorithmia invented the AI Layer.


15 jobs no one knew about in 2010 that everyone will want in 2020

#artificialintelligence

LinkedIn released its list of the top emerging jobs for 2020. These jobs have grown substantially in the last five years, and LinkedIn predicts they will continue to increase demand in the new year. Demand for artificial intelligence specialists grew 74% over the last five years. The job requires fluency in deep learning and machine learning. Cities hiring the most for artificial intelligence specialists include Boston and San Francisco.


Privacy-Preserving Inference in Machine Learning Services Using Trusted Execution Environments

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This work presents Origami, which provides privacy-preserving inference for large deep neural network (DNN) models through a combination of enclave execution, cryptographic blinding, interspersed with accelerator-based computation. Origami partitions the ML model into multiple partitions. The first partition receives the encrypted user input within an SGX enclave. The enclave decrypts the input and then applies cryptographic blinding to the input data and the model parameters. Cryptographic blinding is a technique that adds noise to obfuscate data. Origami sends the obfuscated data for computation to an untrusted GPU/CPU. The blinding and de-blinding factors are kept private by the SGX enclave, thereby preventing any adversary from denoising the data, when the computation is offloaded to a GPU/CPU. The computed output is returned to the enclave, which decodes the computation on noisy data using the unblinding factors privately stored within SGX. This process may be repeated for each DNN layer, as has been done in prior work Slalom. However, the overhead of blinding and unblinding the data is a limiting factor to scalability. Origami relies on the empirical observation that the feature maps after the first several layers can not be used, even by a powerful conditional GAN adversary to reconstruct input. Hence, Origami dynamically switches to executing the rest of the DNN layers directly on an accelerator without needing any further cryptographic blinding intervention to preserve privacy. We empirically demonstrate that using Origami, a conditional GAN adversary, even with an unlimited inference budget, cannot reconstruct the input. We implement and demonstrate the performance gains of Origami using the VGG-16 and VGG-19 models. Compared to running the entire VGG-19 model within SGX, Origami inference improves the performance of private inference from 11x while using Slalom to 15.1x.