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Strategyproof Peer Selection using Randomization, Partitioning, and Apportionment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Peer review, evaluation, and selection is a fundamental aspect of modern science. Funding bodies the world over employ experts to review and select the best proposals of those submitted for funding. The problem of peer selection, however, is much more general: a professional society may want to give a subset of its members awards based on the opinions of all members; an instructor for a MOOC or online course may want to crowdsource grading; or a marketing company may select ideas from group brainstorming sessions based on peer evaluation. We make three fundamental contributions to the study of procedures or mechanisms for peer selection, a specific type of group decision-making problem, studied in computer science, economics, and political science. First, we propose a novel mechanism that is strategyproof, i.e., agents cannot benefit by reporting insincere valuations. Second, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our mechanism by a comprehensive simulation-based comparison with a suite of mechanisms found in the literature. Finally, our mechanism employs a randomized rounding technique that is of independent interest, as it solves the apportionment problem that arises in various settings where discrete resources such as parliamentary representation slots need to be divided proportionally.


Coursera co-founder, Andrew Ng, sets out to raise $150M for AI Fund

#artificialintelligence

Andrew Ng, one of the founders of Coursera, has set out to raise a $150 million fund – dubbed AI Fund – in order to invest in artificial intelligence startups. The news comes just a few months after he announced his own startup, deeplearning.ai. The fund's existence was revealed because of a filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The document filed with the SEC was filed under Andrew Ng's name on 14 August. At the end of June, we reported that Ng had left the Chinese company, Baidu, where he was in charge of the AI team to form his new startup, deeplearning.ai.


jupyter/jupyter

@machinelearnbot

Recitations from Tel-Aviv University introductory course to computer science, assembled as IPython notebooks by Yoav Ram. Exploratory Computing with Python, a set of 15 Notebooks that cover exploratory computing, data analysis, and visualization. No prior programming knowledge required. Each Notebook includes a number of exercises (with answers) that should take less than 4 hours to complete. Developed by Mark Bakker for undergraduate engineering students at the Delft University of Technology.


The Future of Jobs and Jobs Training

#artificialintelligence

Machines are eating humans' jobs talents. And it's not just about jobs that are repetitive and low-skill. Automation, robotics, algorithms and artificial intelligence (AI) in recent times have shown they can do equal or sometimes even better work than humans who are dermatologists, insurance claims adjusters, lawyers, seismic testers in oil fields, sports journalists and financial reporters, crew members on guided-missile destroyers, hiring managers, psychological testers, retail salespeople, and border patrol agents. Moreover, there is growing anxiety that technology developments on the near horizon will crush the jobs of the millions who drive cars and trucks, analyze medical tests and data, perform middle management chores, dispense medicine, trade stocks and evaluate markets, fight on battlefields, perform government functions, and even replace those who program software – that is, the creators of algorithms. People will create the jobs of the future, not simply train for them, ...


IZA World of Labor - Who owns the robots rules the world

#artificialintelligence

The 2012 publication Race against the Machine makes the case that the digitalization of work activities is proceeding so rapidly as to cause dislocations in the job market beyond anything previously experienced [1]. Unlike past mechanization/automation, which affected lower-skill blue-collar and white-collar work, today's information technology affects workers high in the education and skill distribution. Machines can substitute for brains as well as brawn. On one estimate, about 47% of total US employment is at risk of computerization [2]. If you doubt whether a robot or some other machine equipped with digital intelligence connected to the internet could outdo you or me in our work in the foreseeable future, consider news reports about an IBM program to "create" new food dishes (chefs beware), the battle between anesthesiologists and computer programs/robots that do their job much cheaper, and the coming version of Watson ("twice as powerful as the original") based on computers connected over the internet via IBM's Cloud [3].


IZA World of Labor - Who owns the robots rules the world

#artificialintelligence

The 2012 publication Race against the Machine makes the case that the digitalization of work activities is proceeding so rapidly as to cause dislocations in the job market beyond anything previously experienced [1]. Unlike past mechanization/automation, which affected lower-skill blue-collar and white-collar work, today's information technology affects workers high in the education and skill distribution. Machines can substitute for brains as well as brawn. On one estimate, about 47% of total US employment is at risk of computerization [2]. If you doubt whether a robot or some other machine equipped with digital intelligence connected to the internet could outdo you or me in our work in the foreseeable future, consider news reports about an IBM program to "create" new food dishes (chefs beware), the battle between anesthesiologists and computer programs/robots that do their job much cheaper, and the coming version of Watson ("twice as powerful as the original") based on computers connected over the internet via IBM's Cloud [3].


WWTS (What Would Turing Say?)

AI Magazine

WWTS (What Would Turing Say?) Turing's Imitation Game was a brilliant Turing was heavily influenced by the World War II "game" If Turing were alive today, what sort of test might he propose? If a machine could fool interrogators as often as a typical man, then one would have to conclude that that machine, as programmed, was as intelligent as a person (well, as intelligent as men.) As Judy Genova (1994) puts it, Turing's originally proposed game involves not a question of species, but one of gender. The current version, where the interrogator is told he or she needs to distinguish a person from a machine, is (1) much more difficult to get a program to pass, and (2) almost all the added difficulties are largely irrelevant to intelligence! And it's possible to muddy the waters even more by some programs appearing to do well at it due to various tricks, such as having the interviewee program claim to be a 13-year-old Ukrainian who doesn't speak English well (University of Reading 2014), and hence having all its wrong or bizarre responses excused due to cultural, age, or language issues.


How Zipfian Academy Graduate Alex Mentch became a Data Scientist at Facebook

@machinelearnbot

Zipfian Academy has graduated more than 50 alumni, placing graduates into data science roles at Facebook, Twitter, Airbnb, Tesla, Uber, Square, Coursera, and many more Silicon Valley companies. Participants in our program come from backgrounds in engineering, data analysis, statistics, and occasionally professional poker. Here, we share an interview with Alex Mentch, a graduate from our Winter 2014 Cohort. Alex hails originally from Idaho, and studied electrical engineering at Washington University in St. Louis. Looking for a career transition into data science, Alex attended our Winter 2014 cohort where he built a search engine for state legislation.


Supervised Metric Learning with Generalization Guarantees

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The crucial importance of metrics in machine learning algorithms has led to an increasing interest in optimizing distance and similarity functions, an area of research known as metric learning. When data consist of feature vectors, a large body of work has focused on learning a Mahalanobis distance. Less work has been devoted to metric learning from structured objects (such as strings or trees), most of it focusing on optimizing a notion of edit distance. We identify two important limitations of current metric learning approaches. First, they allow to improve the performance of local algorithms such as k-nearest neighbors, but metric learning for global algorithms (such as linear classifiers) has not been studied so far. Second, the question of the generalization ability of metric learning methods has been largely ignored. In this thesis, we propose theoretical and algorithmic contributions that address these limitations. Our first contribution is the derivation of a new kernel function built from learned edit probabilities. Our second contribution is a novel framework for learning string and tree edit similarities inspired by the recent theory of (e,g,t)-good similarity functions. Using uniform stability arguments, we establish theoretical guarantees for the learned similarity that give a bound on the generalization error of a linear classifier built from that similarity. In our third contribution, we extend these ideas to metric learning from feature vectors by proposing a bilinear similarity learning method that efficiently optimizes the (e,g,t)-goodness. Generalization guarantees are derived for our approach, highlighting that our method minimizes a tighter bound on the generalization error of the classifier. Our last contribution is a framework for establishing generalization bounds for a large class of existing metric learning algorithms based on a notion of algorithmic robustness.


Efficient Online Learning and Prediction of Users' Desktop Actions

AAAI Conferences

We investigate prediction of users' desktop activities in the Unix domain. The learning techniques we explore do not require explicit user teaching. We show that simple efficient many-class learning can perform well for action prediction, significantly improving over previously published results and baselines. This finding is promising for various human-computer interaction scenarios where a rich set of potentially predictive features is available, where there can be many different actions to predict, and where there can be considerable nonstationarity.