Collaborating Authors

Northwestern University

Action Recognition From Skeleton Data via Analogical Generalization Over Qualitative Representations

AAAI Conferences

Human action recognition remains a difficult problem for AI. Traditional machine learning techniques can have high recognition accuracy, but they are typically black boxes whose internal models are not inspectable and whose results are not explainable. This paper describes a new pipeline for recognizing human actions from skeleton data via analogical generalization. Specifically, starting with Kinect data, we segment each human action by temporal regions where the motion is qualitatively uniform, creating a sketch graph that provides a form of qualitative representation of the behavior that is easy to visualize. Models are learned from sketch graphs via analogical generalization, which are then used for classification via analogical retrieval. The retrieval process also produces links between the new example and components of the model that provide explanations. To improve recognition accuracy, we implement dynamic feature selection to pick reasonable relational features. We show the explanation advantage of our approach by example, and results on three public datasets illustrate its utility.

Sketch Worksheets in STEM Classrooms: Two Deployments

AAAI Conferences

Sketching can be a valuable tool for science education, but it is currently underutilized. Sketch worksheets were developed to help change this, by using AI technology to give students immediate feedback and to give instructors assistance in grading. Sketch worksheets use visual representations automatically computed by CogSketch, which are combined with conceptual information from the OpenCyc ontology. Feedback is provided to students by comparing an instructor’s sketch to a student’s sketch, using the Structure-Mapping Engine. This paper describes our experiences in deploying sketch worksheets in two types of classes: Geoscience and AI. Sketch worksheets for introductory geoscience classes were developed by geoscientists at University of Wisconsin-Madison, authored using CogSketch and used in classes at both Wisconsin and Northwestern University. Sketch worksheets were also developed and deployed for a knowledge representation and reasoning course at Northwestern. Our experience indicates that sketch worksheets can provide helpful on-the-spot feedback to students, and significantly improve grading efficiency, to the point where sketching assignments can be more practical to use broadly in STEM education.

OTyper: A Neural Architecture for Open Named Entity Typing

AAAI Conferences

Named Entity Typing (NET) is valuable for many natural language processing tasks, such as relation extraction, question answering, knowledge base population, and co-reference resolution. Classical NET targeted a few coarse-grained types, but the task has expanded to sets of hundreds of types in recent years. Existing work in NET assumes that the target types are specified in advance, and that hand-labeled examples of each type are available. In this work, we introduce the task of Open Named Entity Typing (ONET), which is NET when the set of target types is not known in advance. We propose a neural network architecture for ONET, called OTyper, and evaluate its ability to tag entities with types not seen in training. On the benchmark FIGER(GOLD) dataset, OTyper achieves a weighted AUC-ROC score of 0.870 on unseen types, substantially outperforming pattern- and embedding-based baselines.

Learning From Unannotated QA Pairs to Analogically Disambiguate and Answer Questions

AAAI Conferences

Creating systems that can learn to answer natural language questions has been a longstanding challenge for artificial intelligence. Most prior approaches focused on producing a specialized language system for a particular domain and dataset, and they required training on a large corpus manually annotated with logical forms. This paper introduces an analogy-based approach that instead adapts an existing general purpose semantic parser to answer questions in a novel domain by jointly learning disambiguation heuristics and query construction templates from purely textual question-answer pairs. Our technique uses possible semantic interpretations of the natural language questions and answers to constrain a query-generation procedure, producing cases during training that are subsequently reused via analogical retrieval and composed to answer test questions. Bootstrapping an existing semantic parser in this way significantly reduces the number of training examples needed to accurately answer questions. We demonstrate the efficacy of our technique using the Geoquery corpus, on which it approaches state of the art performance using 10-fold cross validation, shows little decrease in performance with 2-folds, and achieves above 50% accuracy with as few as 10 examples.

Controlling Global Statistics in Recurrent Neural Network Text Generation

AAAI Conferences

Recurrent neural network language models (RNNLMs) are an essential component for many language generation tasks such as machine translation, summarization, and automated conversation. Often, we would like to subject the text generated by the RNNLM to constraints, in order to overcome systemic errors (e.g. word repetition) or achieve application-specific goals (e.g. more positive sentiment). In this paper, we present a method for training RNNLMs to simultaneously optimize likelihood and follow a given set of statistical constraints on text generation.  The problem is challenging because the statistical constraints are defined over aggregate model behavior, rather than model parameters, meaning that a straightforward parameter regularization approach is insufficient.  We solve this problem using a dynamic regularizer that updates as training proceeds, based on the generative behavior of the RNNLMs.  Our experiments show that the dynamic regularizer outperforms both generic training and a static regularization baseline.  The approach is successful at improving word-level repetition statistics by a factor of four in RNNLMs on a definition modeling task.  It also improves model perplexity when the statistical constraints are $n$-gram statistics taken from a large corpus.

Multi-View Multi-Graph Embedding for Brain Network Clustering Analysis

AAAI Conferences

Network analysis of human brain connectivity is critically important for understanding brain function and disease states. Embedding a brain network as a whole graph instance into a meaningful low-dimensional representation can be used to investigate disease mechanisms and inform therapeutic interventions. Moreover, by exploiting information from multiple neuroimaging modalities or views, we are able to obtain an embedding that is more useful than the embedding learned from an individual view. Therefore, multi-view multi-graph embedding becomes a crucial task. Currently only a few studies have been devoted to this topic, and most of them focus on vector-based strategy which will cause structural information contained in the original graphs lost. As a novel attempt to tackle this problem, we propose Multi-view Multi-graph Embedding M2E by stacking multi-graphs into multiple partially-symmetric tensors and using tensor techniques to simultaneously leverage the dependencies and correlations among multi-view and multi-graph brain networks. Extensive experiments on real HIV and bipolar disorder brain network datasets demonstrate the superior performance of M2E on clustering brain networks by leveraging the multi-view multi-graph interactions.

Analogy and Relational Representations in the Companion Cognitive Architecture

AI Magazine

This includes the physical world, where qualitative representations have a long track record of providing human-level reasoning and performance (Forbus 2014), but also in social reasoning (for example, degrees of blame [Tomai and Forbus 2007]). Qualitative representations carve up continuous phenomena into symbolic descriptions that serve as a bridge between perception and cognition, facilitate everyday reasoning and communication, and help ground expert reasoning. We close with some lessons (Forbus, Klenk, and Hinrichs 2009) is on higher-order learned and open problems. In Newell's (1990) timescale proposed that analogy involves the construction of decomposition of cognitive phenomena, conceptual mappings between two structured, relational representations. Thus to the other, based on the correspondences), and a we approximate subsystems whose operations occur score indicating the overall quality of the match. For which one is trying to reason about, and hence inferences example, in Companions constraint checking and are made from base to target by default.

The 2016 Computational Analogy Workshop at ICCBR

AI Magazine

Computational analogy and case-based reasoning (CBR) are closely related research areas. Both employ prior cases to reason in complex situations with incomplete information. Analogy research often focuses on modeling human cognitive processes, the structural alignment between a base/source and target, and adaptation/abstraction of the analogical source content. While CBR research also deals with alignment and adaptation, the field tends to focus more on retrieval, case-base maintenance, and pragmatic solutions to real-world problems. However, despite their obvious overlap in research goals and approaches, cross communication and collaboration between these areas has been progressively diminishing. CBR and computational analogy researchers stand to benefit greatly from increased exposure to each other's work and greater cross-pollination of ideas. The objective of this workshop is to promote such communication by bringing together researchers from the two areas, to foster new collaborative endeavors, to stimulate new ideas and avoid reinventing old ones.