If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
We identify and classify users’ self-narration of racial discrimination and corresponding community support in social media. We developed natural language models first to distinguish self-narration of racial discrimination in Reddit threads, and then to identify which types of support are provided and valued in subsequent replies. Our classifiers can detect the self-narration of personally experienced racism in online textual accounts with 83% accuracy and can recognize four types of supportive actions in replies with up to 88% accuracy. Descriptively, our models identify types of racism experienced and the racist concepts (e.g., sexism, appearance or accent related) most experienced by people of different races. Finally, we show that commiseration is the most valued form of social support.
While college completion is predictive of individual career happiness and economic achievement, many factors, such as excessive alcohol usage, jeopardize college success. In this paper, we propose a method for analyzing large-scale, longitudinal social media timelines to provide fine-grained visibility into how the behaviors and trajectories of alcohol-mentioning students differ from their peers. Using propensity score stratification to reduce bias from confounding factors, we analyze the Twitter data of 63k college students over 5 years to study the effect of early alcohol usage on topics linked to college success. We find multi-year effects, including lower mentions of study habits, increased mentions of potentially risky behaviors, and decreases in mentions of positive emotions. We conclude with a discussion of social media data's role in the study of the risky behaviors of college students and other individual behaviors with long-term effects.
Li, Boyi (Huazhong University of Science and Technology) | Peng, Xiulian (Microsoft Research) | Wang, Zhangyang (Texas A&M University) | Xu, Jizheng (Microsoft Research) | Feng, Dan (Huazhong University of Science and Technology)
The recent development of CNN-based image dehazing has revealed the effectiveness of end-to-end modeling. However, extending the idea to end-to-end video dehazing has not been explored yet. In this paper, we propose an End-to-End Video Dehazing Network (EVD-Net), to exploit the temporal consistency between consecutive video frames. A thorough study has been conducted over a number of structure options, to identify the best temporal fusion strategy. Furthermore, we build an End-to-End United Video Dehazing and Detection Network (EVDD-Net), which concatenates and jointly trains EVD-Net with a video object detection model. The resulting augmented end-to-end pipeline has demonstrated much more stable and accurate detection results in hazy video.
Chatbots have drawn significant attention of late in both industry and academia. For most task completion bots in the industry, human intervention is the only means of avoiding mistakes in complex real-world cases. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no existing research work modeling the collaboration between task completion bots and human workers. In this paper, we introduce CoChat, a dialog management framework to enable effective collaboration between bots and human workers. In CoChat, human workers can introduce new actions at any time to handle previously unseen cases. We propose a memory-enhanced hierarchical RNN (MemHRNN) to handle the one-shot learning challenges caused by instantly introducing new actions in CoChat. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets well demonstrate that CoChat can relieve most of the human workers’ workload, and get better user satisfaction rates comparing to other state-of-the-art frameworks.
Emails in the workplace are often intentional calls to action for its recipients. We propose to annotate these emails for what action its recipient will take. We argue that our approach of action-based annotation is more scalable and theory-agnostic than traditional speech-act-based email intent annotation, while still carrying important semantic and pragmatic information. We show that our action-based annotation scheme achieves good inter-annotator agreement. We also show that we can leverage threaded messages from other domains, which exhibit comparable intents in their conversation, with domain adaptive RAINBOW (Recurrently AttentIve Neural Bag-Of-Words). On a collection of datasets consisting of IRC, Reddit, and email, our reparametrized RNNs outperform common multitask/multidomain approaches on several speech act related tasks. We also experiment with a minimally supervised scenario of email recipient action classification, and find the reparametrized RNNs learn a useful representation.
Copying mechanism shows effectiveness in sequence-to-sequence based neural network models for text generation tasks, such as abstractive sentence summarization and question generation. However, existing works on modeling copying or pointing mechanism only considers single word copying from the source sentences. In this paper, we propose a novel copying framework, named Sequential Copying Networks (SeqCopyNet), which not only learns to copy single words, but also copies sequences from the input sentence. It leverages the pointer networks to explicitly select a sub-span from the source side to target side, and integrates this sequential copying mechanism to the generation process in the encoder-decoder paradigm. Experiments on abstractive sentence summarization and question generation tasks show that the proposed SeqCopyNet can copy meaningful spans and outperforms the baseline models.
Long text brings a big challenge to neural network based text matching approaches due to their complicated structures. To tackle the challenge, we propose a knowledge enhanced hybrid neural network (KEHNN) that leverages prior knowledge to identify useful information and filter out noise in long text and performs matching from multiple perspectives. The model fuses prior knowledge into word representations by knowledge gates and establishes three matching channels with words, sequential structures of text given by Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs), and knowledge enhanced representations. The three channels are processed by a convolutional neural network to generate high level features for matching, and the features are synthesized as a matching score by a multilayer perceptron. In this paper, we focus on exploring the use of taxonomy knowledge for text matching. Evaluation results from extensive experiments on public data sets of question answering and conversation show that KEHNN can significantly outperform state-of-the-art matching models and particularly improve matching accuracy on pairs with long text.
Attention mechanism has been a key component in Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) based sequence to sequence learning framework, which has been adopted in many text understanding tasks, such as neural machine translation and abstractive summarization. In these tasks, the attention mechanism models how important each part of the source sentence is to generate a target side word. To compute such importance scores, the attention mechanism summarizes the source side information in the encoder RNN hidden states (i.e., h_t), and then builds a context vector for a target side word upon a subsequence representation of the source sentence, since h_t actually summarizes the information of the subsequence containing the first t-th words in the source sentence. We in this paper, show that an additional attention mechanism called word attention, that builds itself upon word level representations, significantly enhances the performance of sequence to sequence learning. Our word attention can enrich the source side contextual representation by directly promoting the clean word level information in each step. Furthermore, we propose to use contextual gates to dynamically combine the subsequence level and word level contextual information. Experimental results on abstractive summarization and neural machine translation show that word attention significantly improve over strong baselines.
Rong, Jiang (Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences) | Qin, Tao (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences) | An, Bo (Microsoft Research)
The market for selling reusable products (e.g., car rental, cloud services and network access resources) is growing rapidly over the last few years, where service providers maximize their revenues through setting optimal prices. While there has been lots of research on pricing optimization, existing works often ignore dynamic property of demand and the competition among providers. Thus, existing pricing solutions might be far from optimal in realistic markets. This paper provides the first study of service providers' dynamic pricing in consideration of market competition and makes three key contributions along this line. First, we propose a comprehensive model that takes into account the dynamic demand and interaction among providers, and formulate the optimal pricing policy in the competitive market as an equilibrium. Second, we propose an approximate Nash equilibrium to describe providers' behaviors, and design an efficient algorithm to compute the equilibrium which is guaranteed to converge. Third, we derive many properties of the model without any further constraints on demand functions, which can reduce the search space of policies in the algorithm. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments with different parameter settings, showing that the approximate equilibrium is very close to the Nash equilibrium and our proposed pricing policy outperforms existing strategies.
We consider the design of forecasting competitions in which multiple forecasters make predictions about one or more independent events and compete for a single prize. We have two objectives: (1) to award the prize to the most accurate forecaster, and (2) to incentivize forecasters to report truthfully, so that forecasts are informative and forecasters need not spend any cognitive effort strategizing about reports. Proper scoring rules incentivize truthful reporting if all forecasters are paid according to their scores. However, incentives become distorted if only the best-scoring forecaster wins a prize, since forecasters can often increase their probability of having the highest score by reporting extreme beliefs. Even if forecasters do report truthfully, awarding the prize to the forecaster with highest score does not guarantee that high-accuracy forecasters are likely to win; in extreme cases, it can result in a perfect forecaster having zero probability of winning. In this paper, we introduce a truthful forecaster selection mechanism. We lower-bound the probability that our mechanism selects the most accurate forecaster, and give rates for how quickly this bound approaches 1 as the number of events grows. Our techniques can be generalized to the related problems of outputting a ranking over forecasters and hiring a forecaster with high accuracy on future events.