If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
3D construction sandbox games such as Minecraft have provided new opportunities for people to express their creativity. However, individual players have few tools to help them learn about architectural style or how to improve the structure they are building. Ideally, players could utilize tools that capitalize on the large numbers of 3D models built by others to offer guidance for their particular project. We trained a neural network to classify a large collection of Minecraft models from various websites in terms of style (Ancient, Asian, Medieval, or Modern). We present experimental results demonstrating that our model can classify the user-indicated style of a structure with 55% accuracy. We further demonstrate use of this model to highlight nearest neighbors to a specific query structure. We have integrated these tools into a Minecraft Mod that allows players to classify their structure's style and view nearest neighbors in real-time.
However, individual players have few tools to help them learn about architectural style or how to improve the structure they are building. Ideally, players could utilize tools that capitalize on the large numbers of 3D models built by others to offer guidance for their particular project. We trained a neural network to classify a large collection of Minecraft models from various websites in terms of style (Ancient, Asian, Medieval, or Modern). We present experimental results demonstrating that our model can classify the user-indicated style of a structure with 55% accuracy. We further demonstrate use of this model to highlight nearest neighbors to a specific query structure. We have integrated these tools into a Minecraft Mod that allows players to classify their structure's style and view nearest neighbors in real-time.
In many real-world settings, a decision-maker must combine information provided by different experts in order to decide on an effective policy. Alrajeh, Chockler, and Halpern (2018) showed how to combine causal models that are compatible in the sense that, for variables that appear in both models, the experts agree on the causal structure. In this work we show how causal models can be combined in cases where the experts might disagree on the causal structure for variables that appear in both models due to having different focus areas. We provide a new formal definition of compatibility of models in this setting and show how compatible models can be combined. We also consider the complexity of determining whether models are compatible. We believe that the notions defined in this work are of direct relevance to many practical decision making scenarios that come up in natural, social, and medical science settings.
Sharon, Guni (University of Texas at Austin) | Albert, Michael (Duke University) | Rambha, Tarun (Cornell University) | Boyles, Stephen (University of Texas at Austin) | Stone, Peter (University of Texas at Austin)
This paper focuses on two commonly used path assignment policies for agents traversing a congested network: self-interested routing, and system-optimum routing. In the self-interested routing policy each agent selects a path that optimizes its own utility, while in the system-optimum routing, agents are assigned paths with the goal of maximizing system performance. This paper considers a scenario where a centralized network manager wishes to optimize utilities over all agents, i.e., implement a system-optimum routing policy. In many real-life scenarios, however, the system manager is unable to influence the route assignment of all agents due to limited influence on route choice decisions. Motivated by such scenarios, a computationally tractable method is presented that computes the minimal amount of agents that the system manager needs to influence (compliant agents) in order to achieve system optimal performance. Moreover, this methodology can also determine whether a given set of compliant agents is sufficient to achieve system optimum and compute the optimal route assignment for the compliant agents to do so. Experimental results are presented showing that in several large-scale, realistic traffic networks optimal flow can be achieved with as low as 13% of the agent being compliant and up to 54%.
We provide formal definitions of degree of blameworthiness and intention relative to an epistemic state (a probability over causal models and a utility function on outcomes). These, together with a definition of actual causality, provide the key ingredients for moral responsibility judgments. We show that these definitions give insight into commonsense intuitions in a variety of puzzling cases from the literature.
Bjorck, Johan (Cornell University) | Bai, Yiwei (Shanghai Jiao Tong University) | Wu, Xiaojian (Cornell University) | Xue, Yexiang (Cornell University) | Whitmore, Mark (Cornell University) | Gomes, Carla (Cornell University)
Cascades represent rapid changes in networks. A cascading phenomenon of ecological and economic impact is the spread of invasive species in geographic landscapes. The most promising management strategy is often biocontrol, which entails introducing a natural predator able to control the invading population, a setting that can be treated as two interacting cascades of predator and prey populations. We formulate and study a nonlinear problem of optimal biocontrol: optimally seeding the predator cascade over time to minimize the harmful prey population. Recurring budgets, which typically face conservation organizations, naturally leads to sparse constraints which make the problem amenable to approximation algorithms. Available methods based on continuous relaxations scale poorly, to remedy this we develop a novel and scalable randomized algorithm based on a width relaxation, applicable to a broad class of combinatorial optimization problems. We evaluate our contributions in the context of biocontrol for the insect pest Hemlock Wolly Adelgid (HWA) in eastern North America. Our algorithm outperforms competing methods in terms of scalability and solution quality and finds near-optimal strategies for the control of the HWA for fine-grained networks -- an important problem in computational sustainability.
Network embedding has recently attracted lots of attentions in data mining. Existing network embedding methods mainly focus on networks with pairwise relationships. In real world, however, the relationships among data points could go beyond pairwise, i.e., three or more objects are involved in each relationship represented by a hyperedge, thus forming hyper-networks. These hyper-networks pose great challenges to existing network embedding methods when the hyperedges are indecomposable, that is to say, any subset of nodes in a hyperedge cannot form another hyperedge. These indecomposable hyperedges are especially common in heterogeneous networks. In this paper, we propose a novel Deep Hyper-Network Embedding (DHNE) model to embed hyper-networks with indecomposable hyperedges. More specifically, we theoretically prove that any linear similarity metric in embedding space commonly used in existing methods cannot maintain the indecomposibility property in hyper-networks, and thus propose a new deep model to realize a non-linear tuplewise similarity function while preserving both local and global proximities in the formed embedding space. We conduct extensive experiments on four different types of hyper-networks, including a GPS network, an online social network, a drug network and a semantic network. The empirical results demonstrate that our method can significantly and consistently outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms.
Liu, Ye (University of Illinois at Chicago) | He, Lifang (Cornell University) | Cao, Bokai (University of Illinois at Chicago) | Yu, Philip S. (University of Illinois at Chicago) | Ragin, Ann B. (Tsinghua University) | Leow, Alex D. (Northwestern University)
Network analysis of human brain connectivity is critically important for understanding brain function and disease states. Embedding a brain network as a whole graph instance into a meaningful low-dimensional representation can be used to investigate disease mechanisms and inform therapeutic interventions. Moreover, by exploiting information from multiple neuroimaging modalities or views, we are able to obtain an embedding that is more useful than the embedding learned from an individual view. Therefore, multi-view multi-graph embedding becomes a crucial task. Currently only a few studies have been devoted to this topic, and most of them focus on vector-based strategy which will cause structural information contained in the original graphs lost. As a novel attempt to tackle this problem, we propose Multi-view Multi-graph Embedding M2E by stacking multi-graphs into multiple partially-symmetric tensors and using tensor techniques to simultaneously leverage the dependencies and correlations among multi-view and multi-graph brain networks. Extensive experiments on real HIV and bipolar disorder brain network datasets demonstrate the superior performance of M2E on clustering brain networks by leveraging the multi-view multi-graph interactions.
Wu, Xiaojian (Cornell University ) | Gomes-Selman, Jonathan (Stanford University) | Shi, Qinru (Cornell University) | Xue, Yexiang (Cornell University) | Garcia-Villacorta, Roosevelt (Cornell University) | Anderson, Elizabeth (Florida International University) | Sethi, Suresh (U.S. Geological Survey, New York Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit, Cornell University ) | Steinschneider, Scott (Cornell University) | Flecker, Alexander (Cornell University ) | Gomes, Carla (Cornell University )
Real-world problems are often not fully characterized by a single optimal solution, as they frequently involve multiple competing objectives; it is therefore important to identify the so-called Pareto frontier, which captures solution trade-offs. We propose a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme based on Dynamic Programming (DP) for computing a polynomially succinct curve that approximates the Pareto frontier to within an arbitrarily small epsilon > 0 on tree-structured networks. Given a set of objectives, our approximation scheme runs in time polynomial in the size of the instance and 1/epsilon. We also propose a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) scheme to approximate the Pareto frontier. The DP and MIP Pareto frontier approaches have complementary strengths and are surprisingly effective. We provide empirical results showing that our methods outperform other approaches in efficiency and accuracy. Our work is motivated by a problem in computational sustainability concerning the proliferation of hydropower dams throughout the Amazon basin. Our goal is to support decision-makers in evaluating impacted ecosystem services on the full scale of the Amazon basin. Our work is general and can be applied to approximate the Pareto frontier of a variety of multiobjective problems on tree-structured networks.
We introduce a theoretical model of information acquisition under resource limitations in a noisy environment. An agent must guess the truth value of a given Boolean formula φ after performing a bounded number of noisy tests of the truth values of variables in the formula. We observe that, in general, the problem of finding an optimal testing strategy for φ is hard, but we suggest a useful heuristic. The techniques we use also give insight into two apparently unrelated, but well-studied problems: (1) rational inattention (the optimal strategy may involve hardly ever testing variables that are clearly relevant to φ) and (2) what makes a formula hard to learn/remember.