Capital investment: Based on existing data, U.S. – based AI companies have raised a total of 97.8 billion RMB (50.1% of global AI investment) compared to China-based companies that have raised 63.5 billion RMB (33.2% of global AI investment) Human capital: China has 39,200 AI specialists compared to the U.S.' 78,700. Training and retaining talent has become a critical impediment to the development of China's AI industry. Number of investment firms: The U.S. has three times the number of AI investment firms as China does. Capital investment: Based on existing data, U.S. – based AI companies have raised a total of 97.8 billion RMB (50.1% of global AI investment) compared to China-based companies that have raised 63.5 billion RMB (33.2% of global AI investment) Human capital: China has 39,200 AI specialists compared to the U.S.' 78,700.
After the ride-hailing company's five-year operating license expired this summer, the agency gave Uber a four-month extension while it considered granting it another five years. "It's likely this is part of TfL playing hardball with Uber," says André Spicer, who studies corporate social responsibility at Cass Business School in London. The campaign hit home, and De Blasio and Uber compromised: Uber would continue to grow, but it would provide city officials with more data on its operations. And late at night, when the Tube stops running (it does provide limited "Night Tube" service on Fridays and Saturdays), Uber is a particularly popular way to get home.
Instead of relying on simple rules or machine-learning algorithms to train cars to drive, the startup is taking inspiration from cognitive science to give machines a kind of common sense and the ability to quickly deal with new situations. Trying to reverse-engineer the ways in which even a young baby is smarter than the cleverest existing AI system could eventually lead to many smarter AI systems, Tenenbaum says. A related approach might eventually give a self-driving car something approaching a rudimentary form of common sense in unfamiliar scenarios. "This is a very different approach, and I completely applaud it," says Oren Etzioni, CEO of the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, a research institute created by Microsoft cofounder Paul Allen to explore new ideas in AI, including ones inspired by cognitive psychology.
Intel's research found that drivers are unclear about when a machine will talk and when it will listen; which gauges will be used and what they mean; and, perhaps most importantly, how much the driver has to pay attention in self-driving car mode. One of the major benefits, according to the Intel study, is that a computer making judgments about traffic and road conditions won't second-guess a decision. So how will drivers learn to trust autonomous cars? "Trust in autonomous vehicles will reach the first major milestone when the key car manufacturers complete testing on public roads under various environment conditions and will be able to share some positive results in terms of safe driving benchmarks," Ponomarev says.
By convention, the rare class is usually positive, so this means the True Positive (TP) rate is 0.78, and the False Negative rate (1 – True Positive rate) is 0.22. The Non-Large Loss recognition rate is 0.79, so the True Negative rate is 0.79 and the False Positive (FP) rate is 0.21. They don't report a False Positive rate (or True Negative rate, from which we could have calculated it). This result means that, using their Neural network, they must process 28 uninteresting Non-Large Loss customers (false alarms) for each Large-Loss customer they want.
The backdrop for Benioff's comments was debate around the impact of technology and innovation on the UN's 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Benioff cited recent comments made by Russian President Vladimir Putin to the effect that the country that controls mastery of AI can control the world. In San Francisco, we have taxis without taxi drivers, buses without bus drivers, trucks without truck drivers, cargo ships without crews. There was a wider sustainable development and innovation debate that went on, which we'll pick up on tomorrow, but the idea of AI as a basic human right is a very interesting topic in its own right.
SAE International has created the now-standard definitions for the six distinct levels of autonomy, from Level 1 representing only minor driver assistance (like today's cruise control) to Level 6 being the utopian dream of full automation: naps and movie-watching permitted. Many of the features of AI-assisted driving center around increased safety, like automatic braking, collision avoidance systems, pedestrian and cyclists alerts, cross-traffic alerts, and intelligent cruise control. A connected vehicle could also share performance data directly with the manufacturer (called "cognitive predictive maintenance"), allowing for diagnosis and even correction of performance issues without a stop at the dealer. Although it may not at first appear directly tied to automotive AI, the health and medical industry stands to experience some significant disruptions as well.
That's why Karray's team created a prototype system that uses cameras--both Microsoft Kinect cameras and simple dashcams, mounted in a variety of locations on a simulated dashboard--to detect hand movements and algorithms to then grade them on how likely they are to put the driver in danger. Cadillac's Super Cruise system, for example, tracks the human's head position with an infrared camera. They created that algorithm with end-to-end deep learning, training the computer with a large number of images--hand positions, head placement--that involve known distracted-driving scenarios. "Unlike pattern recognition-based algorithms, deep neural networks learn from the huge number of samples presented to them to build their capabilities," says Karray, who conducted the research with Waterloo's Arief Koesdwiady, Chaojie Ou, and Safaa Bedawi.
First, the company known for a variety of electronics, but especially smartphones, revealed that they have launched a $300 million fund (Samsung Automotive Innovation Fund) to back startups and other ventures helping shape the future of the industry. Last year, Samsung acquired Harman, a company that creates auto and audio products, and now, they've revealed that they'll be putting that acquisition to use through an initiative to develop connected auto tech. A huge electronics company like Samsung investing so heavily in automotive ventures may come as a surprise to some, but it's becoming increasingly common for tech companies to put money into the future of this industry. Many huge automotive companies are investing in tech companies.
The three technologies driving these changes are vehicle connectivity, artificial intelligence, and autonomous operating systems. The transmission will use that information, combined with data from GPS systems, mapping systems, internal route memorization, lateral controls and other systems, to shift smoothly, optimize fuel economy and keep a driver fully alert at all times. Ten years ago, truck and engine makers were adding a brand-new electronic control module to trucks to help manage exhaust aftertreatment systems required by new federal emissions regulations, says Jason Krajewski, manager of DTNA's connected vehicle insight team. "Since then, sensors and ECMs have been added regularly, with three or four new powerful number crunchers added in the past couple of years to handle data from new mapping systems and capacity for cameras, radar and active vehicle safety systems.