Results


BOXES: AN EXPERIMENT IN ADAPTIVE CONTROL

Classics (Collection 2)

BOXES is the name of a computer program. This is what the chess player does when he lumps together large numbers of positions as being'similar' to each other, by neglecting the strategically irrelevant features in which they differ. The resultant small game can be said to be a'model' of the large game. To give a brutally extreme example, consider a specification of chess positions so incomplete as to map from the viewpoint of White the approximately 1050 positions of the large game on to the seven shown in Figure 1. Even this simple classification may have a role in the learning of chess.


26 Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence

Classics (Collection 2)

A computer program capable of acting intelligently in the world must have a general representation of the world in terms of which its inputs are interpreted. Designing such a program requires commitments about what knowledge is and how it is obtained. Thus, some of the major traditional problems of philosophy arise in artificial intelligence. More specifically, we want a computer program that decides what to do by inferring in a formal language that a certain strategy will achieve its assigned goal. This requires formalizing concepts of causality, ability, and knowledge.


13 Experiments with a Pleasure-seeking - Automaton

Classics (Collection 2)

Attempts to write'intelligent' computer programs have commonly involved the choice for attack of some particular aspect of intelligent behaviour, together with the choice of some relevant task, or range of tasks, which the program must perform. The emphasis is sometimes on the generality of the program's ability, sometimes on the importance of the particular task which it can perform. Well-known examples of such programs are Newell, Shaw, and Simon's General Problem Solver (1959; see also Ernst and Newell, 1967), which is applicable to a wide range of simple problems, Samuel's checker (draughts) playing program (1959, 1967), and the program written by Evans (1964), which solves geometric analogy problems. However, there is another approach to the goal of machine intelligence which stresses the relationship of an organism to its environment and which sets out from the start to understand what is involved in this relationship. Long ago Grey Walter (1953) experimented with mechanical'tortoises' which could range over the floor in a lifelike manner.



Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence

Classics

"A computer program capable of acting intelligently in the world must have a general representation of the world in terms of which its inputs are interpreted. Designing such a program requires commitments about what knowledge is and how it is obtained. Thus, some of the major traditional problems of philosophy arise in artificial intelligence.More specifically, we want a computer program that decides what to do by inferring in a formal language that a certain strategy will achieve its assigned goal. This requires formalizing concepts of causality, ability, and knowledge. Such formalisms are also considered in philosophical logic." - from the Introduction reprinted in Matthew Ginsberg (ed.), Readings in Nonmonotonic Reasoning, pp. 26-45, San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., 1987.Stanford web version. D. Michie and B. Meltzer (Eds.), Machine intelligence 4 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 463-502


BOXES: An experiment in adaptive control

Classics

In Dale, E. and Michie, D. (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 2, pp. 125-133. Elsevier/North-Holland.



The general and logical theory of automata

Classics

In Jeffress, L.A. (ed.) Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior: The Hixon Symposium. New York: Wiley, pp. 1-31.