If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
For example, for personalized recommendations, we have been working with learning to rank methods that learn individual rankings over item sets. Figure 1: Typical data science workflow, starting with raw data that is turned into features and fed into learning algorithms, resulting in a model that is applied on future data. This means that this pipeline is iterated and improved many times, trying out different features, different forms of preprocessing, different learning methods, or maybe even going back to the source and trying to add more data sources. Probably the main difference between production systems and data science systems is that production systems are real-time systems that are continuously running.
At the time it was predicted that it might take another hundred years until computers would beat top human players at the boardgame Go. But a few days ago, Google's AlphaGo beat the world's champion Go player in a five-game series. Business books and management consultants commonly list six functions that a CEO is responsible for: determine the strategic direction, allocate resources, build the culture, oversee and deliver the company's performance, be the face of the company, and juggle with everyday compromises. Human managerial decisions will switch focus to the "why" rather than the "how" as data-driven decisions slowly creep from scheduling to resource allocation to performance measurement and reporting, and finally to daily management tasks.