"We report results from large-scale experiments in satisfiability testing. As has been observed by others, testing the satisfiability of random formulas often appears surprisingly easy. Here we show that by using the right distribution of instances, and appropriate parameter values, it is possible to generate random formulas that are hard, that is, for which satisfiability testing is quite difficult. Our results provide a benchmark for the evaluation of satisfiability-testing procedures." Proc. AAAI-92.
The technology for building knowledge-based systems by inductive inference from examples hasbeen demonstrated successfully in several practical applications. This paper summarizes an approach to synthesizing decision trees that has been used in a variety of systems, and it describes one such system, ID3, in detail. Results from recent studies show ways in which the methodology can be modified to deal with information that is noisy and/or incomplete. A reported shortcoming of the basic algorithm is discussed and two means of overcoming it are compared. The paper concludes with illustrations of current research directionsMachine Learning, 1, p. 81-106
A practical criterion for the success of a knowledge-based problem-solving system is its usefulness as a tool to those working in its specialized domain of expertise. This paper describes an evaluation and several applications of a knowledge-based system, the PROSPECTOR consultant for mineral exploration. PROSPECTOR is a rule-based judgmental reasoning system that evaluates the mineral potential of a site or region with respect to inference network models of specific classes of ore deposits. Knowledge about a particular type of ore deposit is encoded in a computational model representing observable geological features and the relative significance thereof.In Hayes, J. E., Michie, D., and Pao, Y.-H. (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 10. Ellis Horwood.
"Practice, and the performance improvement that it engenders, has long been a major topic in psychology. In this paper, both experimental and theoretical approaches are employed in an investigation of the mechanisms underlying this improvement On the experimental side, it is argued that a single law, the power law of practice, adequately describes all of the practice data. On the theoretical side, a model of practice rooted in modern cognitive psychology, the chunking theory of learning, is formulated. The paper consists of (1) the presentation of a set of empirical practice curves; (2) mathematical investigations into the nature of power law functions; (3) evaluations of the ability of three different classes of functions to adequatdy model the empirical curves; (4) a discussion of the existing models of practice; (5) a presentation of the chunking theory of learning."In J. R. Anderson (Ed.), Cognitive Skills and their Acquisition (pp. 1-55). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.