If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Decentralized POMDP is an expressive model for multi-agent planning. Finite-state controllers (FSCs)---often used to represent policies for infinite-horizon problems---offer a compact, simple-to-execute policy representation. We exploit novel connections between optimizing decentralized FSCs and the dual linear program for MDPs. Consequently, we describe a dual mixed integer linear program (MIP) for optimizing deterministic FSCs. We exploit the Dec-POMDP structure to devise a compact MIP and formulate constraints that result in policies executable in partially-observable decentralized settings. We show analytically that the dual formulation can also be exploited within the expectation maximization (EM) framework to optimize stochastic FSCs. The resulting EM algorithm can be implemented by solving a sequence of linear programs, without requiring expensive message-passing over the Dec-POMDP DBN. We also present an efficient technique for policy improvement based on a weighted entropy measure. Compared with state-of-the-art FSC methods, our approach offers over an order-of-magnitude speedup, while producing similar or better solutions.
We propose a decision making framework to optimize the resilience of road networks to natural disasters such as floods. Our model generalizes an existing one for this problem by allowing roads with a broad class of stochastic delay models. We then present a fast algorithm based on the sample average approximation (SAA) method and network design techniques to solve this problem approximately. On a small existing benchmark, our algorithm produces near-optimal solutions and the SAA method converges quickly with a small number of samples. We then apply our algorithm to a large real-world problem to optimize the resilience of a road network to failures of stream crossing structures to minimize travel times of emergency medical service vehicles. On medium-sized networks, our algorithm obtains solutions of comparable quality to a greedy baseline method but is 30–60 times faster. Our algorithm is the only existing algorithm that can scale to the full network, which has many thousands of edges.
We propose a model, Lexicographic Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (LPOMDP), which extends POMDPs with lexicographic preferences over multiple value functions. It allows for slack--slightly less-than-optimal values--for higher-priority preferences to facilitate improvement in lower-priority value functions. Many real life situations are naturally captured by LPOMDPs with slack. We consider a semi-autonomous driving scenario in which time spent on the road is minimized, while maximizing time spent driving autonomously. We propose two solutions to LPOMDPs--Lexicographic Value Iteration (LVI) and Lexicographic Point-Based Value Iteration (LPBVI), establishing convergence results and correctness within strong slack bounds. We test the algorithms using real-world road data provided by Open Street Map (OSM) within 10 major cities. Finally, we present GPU-based optimizations for point-based solvers, demonstrating that their application enables us to quickly solve vastly larger LPOMDPs and other variations of POMDPs.
We address a spatial conservation planning problem in which the planner purchases a budget-constrained set of land parcels in order to maximize the expected spread of a population of an endangered species. Existing techniques based on the sample average approximation scheme and standard integer programming methods have high complexity and limited scalability. We propose a fast combinatorial optimization algorithm using Lagrangian relaxation and primal-dual techniques to solve the problem approximately. The algorithm provides a new way to address a range of conservation planning and scheduling problems. On the Red-cockaded Woodpecker data, our algorithm produces near optimal solutions and runs significantly faster than a standard mixed integer program solver. Compared with a greedy baseline, the solution quality is comparable or better, but our algorithm is 10–30 times faster. On synthetic problems that do not exhibit submodularity, our algorithm significantly outperforms the greedy baseline.
We develop a fast approximation algorithm called rounded dynamic programming (RDP) for stochastic network design problems on directed trees. The underlying model describes phenomena that spread away from the root of a tree, for example, the spread of influence in a hierarchical organization or fish in a river network. Actions can be taken to intervene in the network—for some cost—to increase the probability of propagation along an edge. Our algorithm selects a set of actions to maximize the overall spread in the network under a limited budget. We prove that the algorithm is a fully polynomial-time approximation scheme (FPTAS), that is, it finds (1−ε)-optimal solutions in time polynomial in the input size and 1/ε. We apply the algorithm to the problem of allocating funds efficiently to remove barriers in a river network so fish can reach greater portions of their native range. Our experiments show that the algorithm is able to produce near-optimal solutions much faster than an existing technique.
We introduce a family of MDP reduced models characterized by two parameters: the maximum number of primary outcomes per action that are fully accounted for and the maximum number of occurrences of the remaining exceptional outcomes that are planned for in advance. Reduced models can be solved much faster using heuristic search algorithms such as LAO*, benefiting from the dramatic reduction in the number of reachable states. A commonly used determinization approach is a special case of this family of reductions, with one primary outcome per action and zero exceptional outcomes per plan. We present a framework to compute the benefits of planning with reduced models, relying on online planning when the number of exceptional outcomes exceeds the bound. Using this framework, we compare the performance of various reduced models and consider the challenge of generating good ones automatically. We show that each one of the dimensions---allowing more than one primary outcome or planning for some limited number of exceptions---could improve performance relative to standard determinization. The results place recent work on determinization in a broader context and lay the foundation for efficient and systematic exploration of the space of MDP model reductions.
We examine new ways to perform plan recognition (PR) using natural language processing (NLP) techniques. PR often focuses on the structural relationships between consecutive observations and ordered activities that comprise plans. However, NLP commonly treats text as a bag-of-words, omitting such structural relationships and using topic models to break down the distribution of concepts discussed in documents. In this paper, we examine an analogous treatment of plans as distributions of activities. We explore the application of Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic models to human skeletal data of plan execution traces obtained from a RGB-D sensor. This investigation focuses on representing the data as text and interpreting learned activities as a form of activity recognition (AR). Additionally, we explain how the system may perform PR. The initial empirical results suggest that such NLP methods can be useful in complex PR and AR tasks.
Petrik, Marek, Zilberstein, Shlomo
Multiagent planning and coordination problems are common and known to be computationally hard. We show that a wide range of two-agent problems can be formulated as bilinear programs. We present a successive approximation algorithm that significantly outperforms the coverage set algorithm, which is the state-of-the-art method for this class of multiagent problems. Because the algorithm is formulated for bilinear programs, it is more general and simpler to implement. The new algorithm can be terminated at any time and-unlike the coverage set algorithm-it facilitates the derivation of a useful online performance bound. It is also much more efficient, on average reducing the computation time of the optimal solution by about four orders of magnitude. Finally, we introduce an automatic dimensionality reduction method that improves the effectiveness of the algorithm, extending its applicability to new domains and providing a new way to analyze a subclass of bilinear programs.
Coordination of distributed agents is required for problems arising in many areas, including multi-robot systems, networking and e-commerce. As a formal framework for such problems, we use the decentralized partially observable Markov decision process (DEC-POMDP). Though much work has been done on optimal dynamic programming algorithms for the single-agent version of the problem, optimal algorithms for the multiagent case have been elusive. The main contribution of this paper is an optimal policy iteration algorithm for solving DEC-POMDPs. The algorithm uses stochastic finite-state controllers to represent policies. The solution can include a correlation device, which allows agents to correlate their actions without communicating. This approach alternates between expanding the controller and performing value-preserving transformations, which modify the controller without sacrificing value. We present two efficient value-preserving transformations: one can reduce the size of the controller and the other can improve its value while keeping the size fixed. Empirical results demonstrate the usefulness of value-preserving transformations in increasing value while keeping controller size to a minimum. To broaden the applicability of the approach, we also present a heuristic version of the policy iteration algorithm, which sacrifices convergence to optimality. This algorithm further reduces the size of the controllers at each step by assuming that probability distributions over the other agents actions are known. While this assumption may not hold in general, it helps produce higher quality solutions in our test problems.
Pineda, Luis Enrique (University of Massachusetts Amherst) | Lu, Yi (University of Massachusetts Amherst) | Zilberstein, Shlomo (University of Massachusetts Amherst) | Goldman, Claudia V. (General Motors)
A fault represents some erroneous operation of a system that could result from an action selection error or some abnormal condition. We formally define error models that characterize the likelihood of various faults and consider the problem of fault-tolerant planning, which optimizes performance given an error model. We show that factoring the possibility of errors significantly degrades the performance of stochastic planning algorithms such as LAO*, because the number of reachable states grows dramatically. We introduce an approach to plan for a bounded number of faults and analyze its theoretical properties. When combined with a continual planning paradigm, the k-fault-tolerant planning method can produce near-optimal performance, even when the number of faults exceeds the bound. Empirical results in two challenging domains confirm the effectiveness of the approach in handling different types of runtime errors.