Zhou, Pan


Efficient Stochastic Gradient Hard Thresholding

Neural Information Processing Systems

Stochastic gradient hard thresholding methods have recently been shown to work favorably in solving large-scale empirical risk minimization problems under sparsity or rank constraint. Despite the improved iteration complexity over full gradient methods, the gradient evaluation and hard thresholding complexity of the existing stochastic algorithms usually scales linearly with data size, which could still be expensive when data is huge and the hard thresholding step could be as expensive as singular value decomposition in rank-constrained problems. To address these deficiencies, we propose an efficient hybrid stochastic gradient hard thresholding (HSG-HT) method that can be provably shown to have sample-size-independent gradient evaluation and hard thresholding complexity bounds. Specifically, we prove that the stochastic gradient evaluation complexity of HSG-HT scales linearly with inverse of sub-optimality and its hard thresholding complexity scales logarithmically. By applying the heavy ball acceleration technique, we further propose an accelerated variant of HSG-HT which can be shown to have improved factor dependence on restricted condition number.


Efficient Meta Learning via Minibatch Proximal Update

Neural Information Processing Systems

We address the problem of meta-learning which learns a prior over hypothesis from a sample of meta-training tasks for fast adaptation on meta-testing tasks. A particularly simple yet successful paradigm for this research is model-agnostic meta-learning (MAML). Implementation and analysis of MAML, however, can be tricky; first-order approximation is usually adopted to avoid directly computing Hessian matrix but as a result the convergence and generalization guarantees remain largely mysterious for MAML. To remedy this deficiency, in this paper we propose a minibatch proximal update based meta-learning approach for learning to efficient hypothesis transfer. The principle is to learn a prior hypothesis shared across tasks such that the minibatch risk minimization biased regularized by this prior can quickly converge to the optimal hypothesis in each training task.


New Insight into Hybrid Stochastic Gradient Descent: Beyond With-Replacement Sampling and Convexity

Neural Information Processing Systems

As an incremental-gradient algorithm, the hybrid stochastic gradient descent (HSGD) enjoys merits of both stochastic and full gradient methods for finite-sum minimization problem. However, the existing rate-of-convergence analysis for HSGD is made under with-replacement sampling (WRS) and is restricted to convex problems. It is not clear whether HSGD still carries these advantages under the common practice of without-replacement sampling (WoRS) for non-convex problems. In this paper, we affirmatively answer this open question by showing that under WoRS and for both convex and non-convex problems, it is still possible for HSGD (with constant step-size) to match full gradient descent in rate of convergence, while maintaining comparable sample-size-independent incremental first-order oracle complexity to stochastic gradient descent. For a special class of finite-sum problems with linear prediction models, our convergence results can be further improved in some cases.


Exact Recovery of Tensor Robust Principal Component Analysis under Linear Transforms

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This work studies the Tensor Robust Principal Component Analysis (TRPCA) problem, which aims to exactly recover the low-rank and sparse components from their sum. Our model is motivated by the recently proposed linear transforms based tensor-tensor product and tensor SVD. We define a new transforms depended tensor rank and the corresponding tensor nuclear norm. Then we solve the TRPCA problem by convex optimization whose objective is a weighted combination of the new tensor nuclear norm and the $\ell_1$-norm. In theory, we show that under certain incoherence conditions, the convex program exactly recovers the underlying low-rank and sparse components. It is of great interest that our new TRPCA model generalizes existing works. In particular, if the studied tensor reduces to a matrix, our TRPCA model reduces to the known matrix RPCA. Our new TRPCA which is allowed to use general linear transforms can be regarded as an extension of our former TRPCA work which uses the discrete Fourier transform. But their proof of the recovery guarantee is different. Numerical experiments verify our results and the application on image recovery demonstrates the superiority of our method.


MHP-VOS: Multiple Hypotheses Propagation for Video Object Segmentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We address the problem of semi-supervised video object segmentation (VOS), where the masks of objects of interests are given in the first frame of an input video. To deal with challenging cases where objects are occluded or missing, previous work relies on greedy data association strategies that make decisions for each frame individually. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to defer the decision making for a target object in each frame, until a global view can be established with the entire video being taken into consideration. Our approach is in the same spirit as Multiple Hypotheses Tracking (MHT) methods, making several critical adaptations for the VOS problem. We employ the bounding box (bbox) hypothesis for tracking tree formation, and the multiple hypotheses are spawned by propagating the preceding bbox into the detected bbox proposals within a gated region starting from the initial object mask in the first frame. The gated region is determined by a gating scheme which takes into account a more comprehensive motion model rather than the simple Kalman filtering model in traditional MHT. To further design more customized algorithms tailored for VOS, we develop a novel mask propagation score instead of the appearance similarity score that could be brittle due to large deformations. The mask propagation score, together with the motion score, determines the affinity between the hypotheses during tree pruning. Finally, a novel mask merging strategy is employed to handle mask conflicts between objects. Extensive experiments on challenging datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, especially in the case of object missing.


A Stochastic Trust Region Method for Non-convex Minimization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We target the problem of finding a local minimum in non-convex finite-sum minimization. Towards this goal, we first prove that the trust region method with inexact gradient and Hessian estimation can achieve a convergence rate of order $\mathcal{O}(1/{k^{2/3}})$ as long as those differential estimations are sufficiently accurate. Combining such result with a novel Hessian estimator, we propose the sample-efficient stochastic trust region (STR) algorithm which finds an $(\epsilon, \sqrt{\epsilon})$-approximate local minimum within $\mathcal{O}({\sqrt{n}}/{\epsilon^{1.5}})$ stochastic Hessian oracle queries. This improves state-of-the-art result by $\mathcal{O}(n^{1/6})$. Experiments verify theoretical conclusions and the efficiency of STR.


New Insight into Hybrid Stochastic Gradient Descent: Beyond With-Replacement Sampling and Convexity

Neural Information Processing Systems

As an incremental-gradient algorithm, the hybrid stochastic gradient descent (HSGD) enjoys merits of both stochastic and full gradient methods for finite-sum minimization problem. However, the existing rate-of-convergence analysis for HSGD is made under with-replacement sampling (WRS) and is restricted to convex problems. It is not clear whether HSGD still carries these advantages under the common practice of without-replacement sampling (WoRS) for non-convex problems. In this paper, we affirmatively answer this open question by showing that under WoRS and for both convex and non-convex problems, it is still possible for HSGD (with constant step-size) to match full gradient descent in rate of convergence, while maintaining comparable sample-size-independent incremental first-order oracle complexity to stochastic gradient descent. For a special class of finite-sum problems with linear prediction models, our convergence results can be further improved in some cases. Extensive numerical results confirm our theoretical affirmation and demonstrate the favorable efficiency of WoRS-based HSGD.


Efficient Stochastic Gradient Hard Thresholding

Neural Information Processing Systems

Stochastic gradient hard thresholding methods have recently been shown to work favorably in solving large-scale empirical risk minimization problems under sparsity or rank constraint. Despite the improved iteration complexity over full gradient methods, the gradient evaluation and hard thresholding complexity of the existing stochastic algorithms usually scales linearly with data size, which could still be expensive when data is huge and the hard thresholding step could be as expensive as singular value decomposition in rank-constrained problems. To address these deficiencies, we propose an efficient hybrid stochastic gradient hard thresholding (HSG-HT) method that can be provably shown to have sample-size-independent gradient evaluation and hard thresholding complexity bounds. Specifically, we prove that the stochastic gradient evaluation complexity of HSG-HT scales linearly with inverse of sub-optimality and its hard thresholding complexity scales logarithmically. By applying the heavy ball acceleration technique, we further propose an accelerated variant of HSG-HT which can be shown to have improved factor dependence on restricted condition number in the quadratic case. Numerical results confirm our theoretical affirmation and demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed methods.


New Insight into Hybrid Stochastic Gradient Descent: Beyond With-Replacement Sampling and Convexity

Neural Information Processing Systems

As an incremental-gradient algorithm, the hybrid stochastic gradient descent (HSGD) enjoys merits of both stochastic and full gradient methods for finite-sum minimization problem. However, the existing rate-of-convergence analysis for HSGD is made under with-replacement sampling (WRS) and is restricted to convex problems. It is not clear whether HSGD still carries these advantages under the common practice of without-replacement sampling (WoRS) for non-convex problems. In this paper, we affirmatively answer this open question by showing that under WoRS and for both convex and non-convex problems, it is still possible for HSGD (with constant step-size) to match full gradient descent in rate of convergence, while maintaining comparable sample-size-independent incremental first-order oracle complexity to stochastic gradient descent. For a special class of finite-sum problems with linear prediction models, our convergence results can be further improved in some cases. Extensive numerical results confirm our theoretical affirmation and demonstrate the favorable efficiency of WoRS-based HSGD.


Efficient Stochastic Gradient Hard Thresholding

Neural Information Processing Systems

Stochastic gradient hard thresholding methods have recently been shown to work favorably in solving large-scale empirical risk minimization problems under sparsity or rank constraint. Despite the improved iteration complexity over full gradient methods, the gradient evaluation and hard thresholding complexity of the existing stochastic algorithms usually scales linearly with data size, which could still be expensive when data is huge and the hard thresholding step could be as expensive as singular value decomposition in rank-constrained problems. To address these deficiencies, we propose an efficient hybrid stochastic gradient hard thresholding (HSG-HT) method that can be provably shown to have sample-size-independent gradient evaluation and hard thresholding complexity bounds. Specifically, we prove that the stochastic gradient evaluation complexity of HSG-HT scales linearly with inverse of sub-optimality and its hard thresholding complexity scales logarithmically. By applying the heavy ball acceleration technique, we further propose an accelerated variant of HSG-HT which can be shown to have improved factor dependence on restricted condition number. Numerical results confirm our theoretical affirmation and demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed methods.