Collaborating Authors

Zhou, Ming

SMARTS: Scalable Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning Training School for Autonomous Driving Artificial Intelligence

Multi-agent interaction is a fundamental aspect of autonomous driving in the real world. Despite more than a decade of research and development, the problem of how to competently interact with diverse road users in diverse scenarios remains largely unsolved. Learning methods have much to offer towards solving this problem. But they require a realistic multi-agent simulator that generates diverse and competent driving interactions. To meet this need, we develop a dedicated simulation platform called SMARTS (Scalable Multi-Agent RL Training School). SMARTS supports the training, accumulation, and use of diverse behavior models of road users. These are in turn used to create increasingly more realistic and diverse interactions that enable deeper and broader research on multi-agent interaction. In this paper, we describe the design goals of SMARTS, explain its basic architecture and its key features, and illustrate its use through concrete multi-agent experiments on interactive scenarios. We open-source the SMARTS platform and the associated benchmark tasks and evaluation metrics to encourage and empower research on multi-agent learning for autonomous driving. Our code is available at

Leveraging Declarative Knowledge in Text and First-Order Logic for Fine-Grained Propaganda Detection Artificial Intelligence

We study the detection of propagandistic text fragments in news articles. Instead of merely learning from input-output datapoints in training data, we introduce an approach to inject declarative knowledge of fine-grained propaganda techniques. Specifically, we leverage the declarative knowledge expressed in both first-order logic and natural language. The former refers to the logical consistency between coarse- and fine-grained predictions, which is used to regularize the training process with propositional Boolean expressions. The latter refers to the literal definition of each propaganda technique, which is utilized to get class representations for regularizing the model parameters. We conduct experiments on Propaganda Techniques Corpus, a large manually annotated dataset for fine-grained propaganda detection. Experiments show that our method achieves superior performance, demonstrating that leveraging declarative knowledge can help the model to make more accurate predictions.

Inferential Text Generation with Multiple Knowledge Sources and Meta-Learning Artificial Intelligence

We study the problem of generating inferential texts of events for a variety of commonsense like \textit{if-else} relations. Existing approaches typically use limited evidence from training examples and learn for each relation individually. In this work, we use multiple knowledge sources as fuels for the model. Existing commonsense knowledge bases like ConceptNet are dominated by taxonomic knowledge (e.g., \textit{isA} and \textit{relatedTo} relations), having a limited number of inferential knowledge. We use not only structured commonsense knowledge bases, but also natural language snippets from search-engine results. These sources are incorporated into a generative base model via key-value memory network. In addition, we introduce a meta-learning based multi-task learning algorithm. For each targeted commonsense relation, we regard the learning of examples from other relations as the meta-training process, and the evaluation on examples from the targeted relation as the meta-test process. We conduct experiments on Event2Mind and ATOMIC datasets. Results show that both the integration of multiple knowledge sources and the use of the meta-learning algorithm improve the performance.

A Tensorized Transformer for Language Modeling

Neural Information Processing Systems

Latest development of neural models has connected the encoder and decoder through a self-attention mechanism. In particular, Transformer, which is solely based on self-attention, has led to breakthroughs in Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. However, the multi-head attention mechanism, as a key component of Transformer, limits the effective deployment of the model to a resource-limited setting. In this paper, based on the ideas of tensor decomposition and parameters sharing, we propose a novel self-attention model (namely Multi-linear attention) with Block-Term Tensor Decomposition (BTD). We test and verify the proposed attention method on three language modeling tasks (i.e., PTB, WikiText-103 and One-billion) and a neural machine translation task (i.e., WMT-2016 English-German).

Dialog-to-Action: Conversational Question Answering Over a Large-Scale Knowledge Base

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present an approach to map utterances in conversation to logical forms, which will be executed on a large-scale knowledge base. To handle enormous ellipsis phenomena in conversation, we introduce dialog memory management to manipulate historical entities, predicates, and logical forms when inferring the logical form of current utterances. Dialog memory management is embodied in a generative model, in which a logical form is interpreted in a top-down manner following a small and flexible grammar. We learn the model from denotations without explicit annotation of logical forms, and evaluate it on a large-scale dataset consisting of 200K dialogs over 12.8M entities. Results verify the benefits of modeling dialog memory, and show that our semantic parsing-based approach outperforms a memory network based encoder-decoder model by a huge margin.

Reasoning Over Semantic-Level Graph for Fact Checking Artificial Intelligence

We study fact-checking in this paper, which aims to verify a textual claim given textual evidence (e.g., retrieved sentences from Wikipedia). Existing studies typically either concatenate retrieved sentences as a single string or use feature fusion on the top of features of sentences, while ignoring semantic-level information including participants, location, and temporality of an event occurred in a sentence and relationships among multiple events. Such semantic-level information is crucial for understanding the relational structure of evidence and the deep reasoning procedure over that. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing a graph-based reasoning framework, called the Dynamic REAsoning Machine (DREAM) framework. We first construct a semantic-level graph, where nodes are extracted by semantic role labeling toolkits and are connected by inner- and inter- sentence edges. After having the automatically constructed graph, we use XLNet as the backbone of our approach and propose a graph-based contextual word representation learning module and a graph-based reasoning module to leverage the information of graphs. The first module is designed by considering a claim as a sequence, in which case we use the graph structure to re-define the relative distance of words. On top of this, we propose the second module by considering both the claim and the evidence as graphs and use a graph neural network to capture the semantic relationship at a more abstract level. We conduct experiments on FEVER, a large-scale benchmark dataset for fact-checking. Results show that both of the graph-based modules improve performance. Our system is the state-of-the-art system on the public leaderboard in terms of both accuracy and FEVER score.

Signal Instructed Coordination in Team Competition Artificial Intelligence

Most existing models of multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) adopt centralized training with decentralized execution framework. We demonstrate that the decentralized execution scheme restricts agents' capacity to find a better joint policy in team competition games, where each team of agents share the common rewards and cooperate to compete against other teams. To resolve this problem, we propose Signal Instructed Coordination (SIC), a novel coordination module that can be integrated with most existing models. SIC casts a common signal sampled from a pre-defined distribution to team members, and adopts an information-theoretic regularization to encourage agents to exploit in learning the instruction of centralized signals. Our experiments show that SIC can consistently improve team performance over well-recognized MARL models on matrix games and predator-prey games.

Pathologist-Level Grading of Prostate Biopsies with Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence

Background: An increasing volume of prostate biopsies and a world-wide shortage of uro-pathologists puts a strain on pathology departments. Additionally, the high intra- and inter-observer variability in grading can result in over- and undertreatment of prostate cancer. Artificial intelligence (AI) methods may alleviate these problems by assisting pathologists to reduce workload and harmonize grading. Methods: We digitized 6,682 needle biopsies from 976 participants in the population based STHLM3 diagnostic study to train deep neural networks for assessing prostate biopsies. The networks were evaluated by predicting the presence, extent, and Gleason grade of malignant tissue for an independent test set comprising 1,631 biopsies from 245 men. We additionally evaluated grading performance on 87 biopsies individually graded by 23 experienced urological pathologists from the International Society of Urological Pathology. We assessed discriminatory performance by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and tumor extent predictions by correlating predicted millimeter cancer length against measurements by the reporting pathologist. We quantified the concordance between grades assigned by the AI and the expert urological pathologists using Cohen's kappa. Results: The performance of the AI to detect and grade cancer in prostate needle biopsy samples was comparable to that of international experts in prostate pathology. The AI achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.997 for distinguishing between benign and malignant biopsy cores, and 0.999 for distinguishing between men with or without prostate cancer. The correlation between millimeter cancer predicted by the AI and assigned by the reporting pathologist was 0.96. For assigning Gleason grades, the AI achieved an average pairwise kappa of 0.62. This was within the range of the corresponding values for the expert pathologists (0.60 to 0.73).

Pretraining-Based Natural Language Generation for Text Summarization Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose a novel pretraining-based encoder-decoder framework, which can generate the output sequence based on the input sequence in a two-stage manner. For the encoder of our model, we encode the input sequence into context representations using BERT. For the decoder, there are two stages in our model, in the first stage, we use a Transformer-based decoder to generate a draft output sequence. In the second stage, we mask each word of the draft sequence and feed it to BERT, then by combining the input sequence and the draft representation generated by BERT, we use a Transformer-based decoder to predict the refined word for each masked position. To the best of our knowledge, our approach is the first method which applies the BERT into text generation tasks. As the first step in this direction, we evaluate our proposed method on the text summarization task. Experimental results show that our model achieves new state-of-the-art on both CNN/Daily Mail and New York Times datasets.