If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
With the development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and image scanning technology, Whole-slide Image (WSI) scanners are widely used in the field of pathological diagnosis. Therefore, WSI analysis has become the key to modern digital pathology. Since 2004, WSI has been used more and more in CAD. Since machine vision methods are usually based on semi-automatic or fully automatic computers, they are highly efficient and labor-saving. The combination of WSI and CAD technologies for segmentation, classification, and detection helps histopathologists obtain more stable and quantitative analysis results, save labor costs and improve diagnosis objectivity. This paper reviews the methods of WSI analysis based on machine learning. Firstly, the development status of WSI and CAD methods are introduced. Secondly, we discuss publicly available WSI datasets and evaluation metrics for segmentation, classification, and detection tasks. Then, the latest development of machine learning in WSI segmentation, classification, and detection are reviewed continuously. Finally, the existing methods are studied, the applicabilities of the analysis methods are analyzed, and the application prospects of the analysis methods in this field are forecasted.
With the powerful learning ability of deep convolutional networks, deep clustering methods can extract the most discriminative information from individual data and produce more satisfactory clustering results. However, existing deep clustering methods usually ignore the relationship between the data. Fortunately, the graph convolutional network can handle such relationship, opening up a new research direction for deep clustering. In this paper, we propose a cross-attention based deep clustering framework, named Cross-Attention Fusion based Enhanced Graph Convolutional Network (CaEGCN), which contains four main modules: the cross-attention fusion module which innovatively concatenates the Content Auto-encoder module (CAE) relating to the individual data and Graph Convolutional Auto-encoder module (GAE) relating to the relationship between the data in a layer-by-layer manner, and the self-supervised model that highlights the discriminative information for clustering tasks. While the cross-attention fusion module fuses two kinds of heterogeneous representation, the CAE module supplements the content information for the GAE module, which avoids the over-smoothing problem of GCN. In the GAE module, two novel loss functions are proposed that reconstruct the content and relationship between the data, respectively. Finally, the self-supervised module constrains the distributions of the middle layer representations of CAE and GAE to be consistent. Experimental results on different types of datasets prove the superiority and robustness of the proposed CaEGCN.
Recently unsupervised Bilingual Lexicon Induction (BLI) without any parallel corpus has attracted much research interest. One of the crucial parts in methods for the BLI task is the matching procedure. Previous works impose a too strong constraint on the matching and lead to many counterintuitive translation pairings. Thus, We propose a relaxed matching procedure to find a more precise matching between two languages. We also find that aligning source and target language embedding space bidirectionally will bring significant improvement. We follow the previous iterative framework to conduct experiments. Results on standard benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method, which substantially outperforms previous unsupervised methods.
Clustering is one of the most fundamental tools in the artificial intelligence area, particularly in the pattern recognition and learning theory. In this paper, we propose a simple, but novel approach for variance-based k-clustering tasks, included in which is the widely known k-means clustering. The proposed approach picks a sampling subset from the given dataset and makes decisions based on the data information in the subset only. With certain assumptions, the resulting clustering is provably good to estimate the optimum of the variance-based objective with high probability. Extensive experiments on synthetic datasets and real-world datasets show that to obtain competitive results compared with k-means method (Llyod 1982) and k-means++ method (Arthur and Vassilvitskii 2007), we only need 7% information of the dataset. If we have up to 15% information of the dataset, then our algorithm outperforms both the k-means method and k-means++ method in at least 80% of the clustering tasks, in terms of the quality of clustering. Also, an extended algorithm based on the same idea guarantees a balanced k-clustering result.
For the challenging computational environment of IOT/edge computing, personalized federated learning allows every client to train a strong personalized cloud model by effectively collaborating with the other clients in a privacy-preserving manner. The performance of personalized federated learning is largely determined by the effectiveness of inter-client collaboration. However, when the data is non-IID across all clients, it is challenging to infer the collaboration relationships between clients without knowing their data distributions. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem by a novel framework named federated attentive message passing (FedAMP) that allows each client to collaboratively train its own personalized cloud model without using a global model. FedAMP implements an attentive collaboration mechanism by iteratively encouraging clients with more similar model parameters to have stronger collaborations. This adaptively discovers the underlying collaboration relationships between clients, which significantly boosts effectiveness of collaboration and leads to the outstanding performance of FedAMP. We establish the convergence of FedAMP for both convex and non-convex models, and further propose a heuristic method that resembles the FedAMP framework to further improve its performance for federated learning with deep neural networks. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our methods in handling non-IID data, dirty data and dropped clients.
Zhang, Yong, Lu, Zhaosong
In this paper we consider general rank minimization problems with rank appearing in either objective function or constraint. We first show that a class of matrix optimization problems can be solved as lower dimensional vector optimization problems. As a consequence, we establish that a class of rank minimization problems have closed form solutions. Using this result, we then propose penalty decomposition methods for general rank minimization problems. The convergence results of the PD methods have been shown in the longer version of the paper.
Measuring sentence similarity is a classic topic in natural language processing. Light-weighted similarities are still of particular practical significance even when deep learning models have succeeded in many other tasks. Some light-weighted similarities with more theoretical insights have been demonstrated to be even stronger than supervised deep learning approaches. However, the successful light-weighted models such as Word Mover's Distance [Kusner et al., 2015] or Smooth Inverse Frequency [Arora et al., 2017] failed to detect the difference from the structure of sentences, i.e. order of words. To address this issue, we present Recursive Optimal Transport (ROT) framework to incorporate the structural information with the classic OT. Moreover, we further develop Recursive Optimal Similarity (ROTS) for sentences with the valuable semantic insights from the connections between cosine similarity of weighted average of word vectors and optimal transport. ROTS is structural-aware and with low time complexity compared to optimal transport. Our experiments over 20 sentence textural similarity (STS) datasets show the clear advantage of ROTS over all weakly supervised approaches. Detailed ablation study demonstrate the effectiveness of ROT and the semantic insights.
Physiological signals that provide the objective repression of human affective states are attracted increasing attention in the emotion recognition field. However, the single signal is difficult to obtain completely and accurately description for emotion. Multiple physiological signals fusing models, building the uniform classification model by means of consistent and complementary information from different emotions to improve recognition performance. Original fusing models usually choose the particular classification method to recognition, which is ignoring different distribution of multiple signals. Aiming above problems, in this work, we propose an emotion classification model through multiple modal physiological signals for different emotions. Features are extracted from EEG, EMG, EOG signals for characterizing emotional state on valence and arousal levels. For characterization, four bands filtering theta, beta, alpha, gamma for signal preprocessing are adopted and three Hjorth parameters are computing as features. To improve classification performance, an ensemble classifier is built. Experiments are conducted on the benchmark DEAP datasets. For the two-class task, the best result on arousal is 94.42\%, the best result on valence is 94.02\%, respectively. For the four-class task, the highest average classification accuracy is 90.74, and it shows good stability. The influence of different peripheral physiological signals for results is also analyzed in this paper.
Ning, Li, Zhang, Yong
November 13, 2019 Abstract Collision avoidance is one of the most primary problems in the decentralized multiagent navigation: while the agents are moving towards their own targets, attentions should be paid to avoid the collisions with the others. In this paper, we introduced the concept of the local action cell, which provides for each agent a set of velocities that are safe to perform. Consequently, as long as the local action cells are updated on time and each agent selects its motion within the corresponding cell, there should be no collision caused. Furthermore, we coupled the local action cell with an adaptive learning framework, in which the performance of selected motions are evaluated and used as the references for making decisions in the following updates. The efficiency of the proposed approaches were demonstrated through the experiments for three commonly considered scenarios, where the comparisons have been made with several well studied strategies. 1 Introduction Collision-free navigation is a fundamental and important problem in the design of the multiagent systems, which are widely applied in the fields such as robots control and traffic engineering.
Sparse code multiple access (SCMA) has been one of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) schemes aiming to support high spectral efficiency and ubiquitous access requirements for 5G wireless communication networks. Conventional SCMA approaches are confronting remarkable challenges in designing low complexity high accuracy decoding algorithm and constructing optimum codebooks. Fortunately, the recent spotlighted deep learning technologies are of significant potentials in solving many communication engineering problems. Inspired by this, we explore approaches to improve SCMA performances with the help of deep learning methods. We propose and train a deep neural network (DNN) called DL-SCMA to learn to decode SCMA modulated signals corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Putting encoding and decoding together, an autoencoder called AE-SCMA is established and trained to generate optimal SCMA codewords and reconstruct original bits. Furthermore, by manipulating the mapping vectors, an autoencoder is able to generalize SCMA, thus a dense code multiple access (DCMA) scheme is proposed. Simulations show that the DNN SCMA decoder significantly outperforms the conventional message passing algorithm (MPA) in terms of bit error rate (BER), symbol error rate (SER) and computational complexity, and AE-SCMA also demonstrates better performances via constructing better SCMA codebooks. The performance of deep learning aided DCMA is superior to the SCMA.