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Collaborating Authors

Zhang, Xiaolu


QEBA: Query-Efficient Boundary-Based Blackbox Attack

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning (ML), especially deep neural networks (DNNs) have been widely used in various applications, including several safety-critical ones (e.g. autonomous driving). As a result, recent research about adversarial examples has raised great concerns. Such adversarial attacks can be achieved by adding a small magnitude of perturbation to the input to mislead model prediction. While several whitebox attacks have demonstrated their effectiveness, which assume that the attackers have full access to the machine learning models; blackbox attacks are more realistic in practice. In this paper, we propose a Query-Efficient Boundary-based blackbox Attack (QEBA) based only on model's final prediction labels. We theoretically show why previous boundary-based attack with gradient estimation on the whole gradient space is not efficient in terms of query numbers, and provide optimality analysis for our dimension reduction-based gradient estimation. On the other hand, we conducted extensive experiments on ImageNet and CelebA datasets to evaluate QEBA. We show that compared with the state-of-the-art blackbox attacks, QEBA is able to use a smaller number of queries to achieve a lower magnitude of perturbation with 100% attack success rate. We also show case studies of attacks on real-world APIs including MEGVII Face++ and Microsoft Azure.


Generalization in Generative Adversarial Networks: A Novel Perspective from Privacy Protection

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper, we aim to understand the generalization properties of generative adversarial networks (GANs) from a new perspective of privacy protection. Theoretically, we prove that a differentially private learning algorithm used for training the GAN does not overfit to a certain degree, i.e., the generalization gap can be bounded. Moreover, some recent works, such as the Bayesian GAN, can be re-interpreted based on our theoretical insight from privacy protection. Quantitatively, to evaluate the information leakage of well-trained GAN models, we perform various membership attacks on these models. The results show that previous Lipschitz regularization techniques are effective in not only reducing the generalization gap but also alleviating the information leakage of the training dataset.


Characterizing Membership Privacy in Stochastic Gradient Langevin Dynamics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Bayesian deep learning is recently regarded as an intrinsic way to characterize the weight uncertainty of deep neural networks~(DNNs). Stochastic Gradient Langevin Dynamics~(SGLD) is an effective method to enable Bayesian deep learning on large-scale datasets. Previous theoretical studies have shown various appealing properties of SGLD, ranging from the convergence properties to the generalization bounds. In this paper, we study the properties of SGLD from a novel perspective of membership privacy protection (i.e., preventing the membership attack). The membership attack, which aims to determine whether a specific sample is used for training a given DNN model, has emerged as a common threat against deep learning algorithms. To this end, we build a theoretical framework to analyze the information leakage (w.r.t. the training dataset) of a model trained using SGLD. Based on this framework, we demonstrate that SGLD can prevent the information leakage of the training dataset to a certain extent. Moreover, our theoretical analysis can be naturally extended to other types of Stochastic Gradient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (SG-MCMC) methods. Empirical results on different datasets and models verify our theoretical findings and suggest that the SGLD algorithm can not only reduce the information leakage but also improve the generalization ability of the DNN models in real-world applications.


Generalization in Generative Adversarial Networks: A Novel Perspective from Privacy Protection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we aim to understand the generalization properties of generative adversarial networks (GANs) from a new perspective of privacy protection. Theoretically, we prove that a differentially private learning algorithm used for training the GAN does not overfit to a certain degree, i.e., the generalization gap can be bounded. Moreover, some recent works, such as the Bayesian GAN, can be re-interpreted based on our theoretical insight from privacy protection. Quantitatively, to evaluate the information leakage of well-trained GAN models, we perform various membership attacks on these models. The results show that previous Lipschitz regularization techniques are effective in not only reducing the generalization gap but also alleviating the information leakage of the training dataset.