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Zhang, Hong


A Comprehensive Review of Computer-aided Whole-slide Image Analysis: from Datasets to Feature Extraction, Segmentation, Classification, and Detection Approaches

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and image scanning technology, Whole-slide Image (WSI) scanners are widely used in the field of pathological diagnosis. Therefore, WSI analysis has become the key to modern digital pathology. Since 2004, WSI has been used more and more in CAD. Since machine vision methods are usually based on semi-automatic or fully automatic computers, they are highly efficient and labor-saving. The combination of WSI and CAD technologies for segmentation, classification, and detection helps histopathologists obtain more stable and quantitative analysis results, save labor costs and improve diagnosis objectivity. This paper reviews the methods of WSI analysis based on machine learning. Firstly, the development status of WSI and CAD methods are introduced. Secondly, we discuss publicly available WSI datasets and evaluation metrics for segmentation, classification, and detection tasks. Then, the latest development of machine learning in WSI segmentation, classification, and detection are reviewed continuously. Finally, the existing methods are studied, the applicabilities of the analysis methods are analyzed, and the application prospects of the analysis methods in this field are forecasted.


Implicit Semantic Data Augmentation for Deep Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper, we propose a novel implicit semantic data augmentation (ISDA) approach to complement traditional augmentation techniques like flipping, translation or rotation. Our work is motivated by the intriguing property that deep networks are surprisingly good at linearizing features, such that certain directions in the deep feature space correspond to meaningful semantic transformations, e.g., adding sunglasses or changing backgrounds. As a consequence, translating training samples along many semantic directions in the feature space can effectively augment the dataset to improve generalization. To implement this idea effectively and efficiently, we first perform an online estimate of the covariance matrix of deep features for each class, which captures the intra-class semantic variations. Then random vectors are drawn from a zero-mean normal distribution with the estimated covariance to augment the training data in that class.


Implicit Semantic Data Augmentation for Deep Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we propose a novel implicit semantic data augmentation (ISDA) approach to complement traditional augmentation techniques like flipping, translation or rotation. Our work is motivated by the intriguing property that deep networks are surprisingly good at linearizing features, such that certain directions in the deep feature space correspond to meaningful semantic transformations, e.g., adding sunglasses or changing backgrounds. As a consequence, translating training samples along many semantic directions in the feature space can effectively augment the dataset to improve generalization. To implement this idea effectively and efficiently, we first perform an online estimate of the covariance matrix of deep features for each class, which captures the intra-class semantic variations. Then random vectors are drawn from a zero-mean normal distribution with the estimated covariance to augment the training data in that class. Importantly, instead of augmenting the samples explicitly, we can directly minimize an upper bound of the expected cross-entropy (CE) loss on the augmented training set, leading to a highly efficient algorithm. In fact, we show that the proposed ISDA amounts to minimizing a novel robust CE loss, which adds negligible extra computational cost to a normal training procedure. Although being simple, ISDA consistently improves the generalization performance of popular deep models (ResNets and DenseNets) on a variety of datasets, e.g., CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and ImageNet. Code for reproducing our results are available at https://github.com/blackfeather-wang/ISDA-for-Deep-Networks.


Semi-Supervised Monocular Depth Estimation with Left-Right Consistency Using Deep Neural Network

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There has been tremendous research progress in estimating the depth of a scene from a monocular camera image. Existing methods for single-image depth prediction are exclusively based on deep neural networks, and their training can be unsupervised using stereo image pairs, supervised using LiDAR point clouds, or semi-supervised using both stereo and LiDAR. In general, semi-supervised training is preferred as it does not suffer from the weaknesses of either supervised training, resulting from the difference in the cameras and the LiDARs field of view, or unsupervised training, resulting from the poor depth accuracy that can be recovered from a stereo pair. In this paper, we present our research in single image depth prediction using semi-supervised training that outperforms the state-of-the-art. We achieve this through a loss function that explicitly exploits left-right consistency in a stereo reconstruction, which has not been adopted in previous semi-supervised training. In addition, we describe the correct use of ground truth depth derived from LiDAR that can significantly reduce prediction error. The performance of our depth prediction model is evaluated on popular datasets, and the importance of each aspect of our semi-supervised training approach is demonstrated through experimental results. Our deep neural network model has been made publicly available.


Reinforcing Classical Planning for Adversary Driving Scenarios

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Adversary scenarios in driving, where the other vehicles may make mistakes or have a competing or malicious intent, have to be studied not only for our safety but also for addressing the concerns from public in order to push the technology forward. Classical planning solutions for adversary driving do not exist so far, especially when the vehicles do not communicate their intent. Given recent success in solving hard problems in artificial intelligence (AI), it is worth studying the potential of reinforcement learning for safety driving in adversary settings. In most recent reinforcement learning applications, there is a deep neural networks that maps an input state to an optimal policy over primitive actions. However, learning a policy over primitive actions is very difficult and inefficient. On the other hand, the knowledge already learned in classical planning methods should be inherited and reused. In order to take advantage of reinforcement learning good at exploring the action space for safety and classical planning skill models good at handling most driving scenarios, we propose to learn a policy over an action space of primitive actions augmented with classical planning methods. We show two advantages by doing so. First, training this reinforcement learning agent is easier and faster than training the primitive-action agent. Second, our new agent outperforms the primitive-action reinforcement learning agent, human testers as well as the classical planning methods that our agent queries as skills.