Waltz, David


Learning Parameters of the K-Means Algorithm From Subjective Human Annotation

AAAI Conferences

The New York Public Library is participating in the Chronicling America initiative to develop an online searchable database of historically significant newspaper articles. Microfilm copies of the papers are scanned and high resolution OCR software is run on them. The text from the OCR provides a wealth of data and opinion for researchers and historians. However, the categorization of articles provided by the OCR engine is rudimentary and a large number of the articles are labeled ``editorial" without further categorization. To provide a more refined grouping of articles, unsupervised machine learning algorithms (such as K-Means) are being investigated. The K-Means algorithm requires tuning of parameters such as the number of clusters and mechanism of seeding to ensure that the search is not prone to being caught in a local minima. We designed a pilot study to observe whether humans are adept at finding sub-categories. The subjective labels provided by humans are used as a guide to compare performance of the automated clustering techniques. In addition, seeds provided by annotators are carefully incorporated into a semi-supervised K-Means algorithm (Seeded K-Means); empirical results indicate that this helps to improve performance and provides an intuitive sub-categorization of the articles labeled ``editorial" by the OCR engine.


An Opinionated History of AAAI

AI Magazine

AAAI has seen great ups and downs, based largely on the perceived success of AI in business applications. Great early success allowed AAAI to weather the "AI winter" to enjoy the current "thaw." Other challenges to AAAI have resulted from its success in spinning out international conferences, thereby effectively removing several key AI areas from the AAAI National Conference. AAAI leadership continues to look for ways to deal with these challenges.



AAAI 2000 Elected Fellows

AI Magazine

AAAI is pleased to present the elected fellows for 2000: Kenneth M. Ford, Eric Grimson, Leslie Pack Kaelbling, David Poole, Jonathan Schaeffer, and Bart Selman


AAAI 2000 Elected Fellows

AI Magazine

AAAI is pleased to present the elected fellows for 2000: Kenneth M. Ford, Eric Grimson, Leslie Pack Kaelbling, David Poole, Jonathan Schaeffer, and Bart Selman


AAAI-98 Presidential Address: The Importance of Importance

AI Magazine

Human intelligence is shaped by what is most important to us -- the things that cause ecstasy, despair, pleasure, pain, and other intense emotions. The ability to separate the important from the unimportant underlies such faculties as attention, focusing, situation and outcome assessment, priority setting, judgment, taste, goal selection, credit assignment, the selection of relevant memories and precedents, and learning from experience. AI has for the most part focused on logic and reasoning in artificial situations where only relevant variables and operators are specified and has paid insufficient attention to processes of reducing the richness and disorganization of the real world to a form where logical reasoning can be applied. This article discusses the role of importance judgment in intelligence; provides some examples of research that make use of importance judgments; and offers suggestions for new mechanisms, architectures, applications, and research directions for AI.


AAAI-98 Presidential Address: The Importance of Importance

AI Magazine

Human intelligence is shaped by what is most important to us -- the things that cause ecstasy, despair, pleasure, pain, and other intense emotions. The ability to separate the important from the unimportant underlies such faculties as attention, focusing, situation and outcome assessment, priority setting, judgment, taste, goal selection, credit assignment, the selection of relevant memories and precedents, and learning from experience. AI has for the most part focused on logic and reasoning in artificial situations where only relevant variables and operators are specified and has paid insufficient attention to processes of reducing the richness and disorganization of the real world to a form where logical reasoning can be applied. This article discusses the role of importance judgment in intelligence; provides some examples of research that make use of importance judgments; and offers suggestions for new mechanisms, architectures, applications, and research directions for AI.


Scientific DataLink's Artificial Intelligence Classification Scheme

AI Magazine

I was approached by Phoebe Huang of Comtex Scientific Corporation who hoped that I would help devise a dramatically expanded index for topics in AI to aid Comtex in indexing the series of AI memos and reports that they had been gathering. Comtex had tried to get the ACM to expand and update its classification. But was told that ACM had just revised the listing two years ago or so ago, and did not intend to revise it again for a while: even if they did. The major decision I had to make was whether to use the existing ACM index scheme and add to it, or start with a fresh sheet of paper and devise my own.


Artificial Intelligence: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Directions

AI Magazine

This report covers two main AI areas: natural language processing and expert systems. The discussion of each area includes an assessment of the state-of-the-art, an enumeration of problems areas and opportunities, recommendations for the next 5-10 years, and an assessment of the resources required to carry them out.