Wallach, Hanna

Flexible Models for Microclustering with Application to Entity Resolution

Neural Information Processing Systems

Most generative models for clustering implicitly assume that the number of data points in each cluster grows linearly with the total number of data points. Finite mixture models, Dirichlet process mixture models, and Pitman--Yor process mixture models make this assumption, as do all other infinitely exchangeable clustering models. However, for some applications, this assumption is inappropriate. For example, when performing entity resolution, the size of each cluster should be unrelated to the size of the data set, and each cluster should contain a negligible fraction of the total number of data points. These applications require models that yield clusters whose sizes grow sublinearly with the size of the data set.

Weight of Evidence as a Basis for Human-Oriented Explanations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Interpretability is an elusive but highly sought-after characteristic of modern machine learning methods. Recent work has focused on interpretability via $\textit{explanations}$, which justify individual model predictions. In this work, we take a step towards reconciling machine explanations with those that humans produce and prefer by taking inspiration from the study of explanation in philosophy, cognitive science, and the social sciences. We identify key aspects in which these human explanations differ from current machine explanations, distill them into a list of desiderata, and formalize them into a framework via the notion of $\textit{weight of evidence}$ from information theory. Finally, we instantiate this framework in two simple applications and show it produces intuitive and comprehensible explanations.

Poisson-Randomized Gamma Dynamical Systems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper presents the Poisson-randomized gamma dynamical system (PRGDS), a model for sequentially observed count tensors that encodes a strong inductive bias toward sparsity and burstiness. The PRGDS is based on a new motif in Bayesian latent variable modeling, an alternating chain of discrete Poisson and continuous gamma latent states that is analytically convenient and computationally tractable. This motif yields closed-form complete conditionals for all variables by way of the Bessel distribution and a novel discrete distribution that we call the shifted confluent hypergeometric distribution. We draw connections to closely related models and compare the PRGDS to these models in studies of real-world count data sets of text, international events, and neural spike trains. We find that a sparse variant of the PRGDS, which allows the continuous gamma latent states to take values of exactly zero, often obtains better predictive performance than other models and is uniquely capable of inferring latent structures that are highly localized in time.

Toward Fairness in AI for People with Disabilities: A Research Roadmap

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI technologies have the potential to dramatically impact the lives of people with disabilities (PWD). Indeed, improving the lives of PWD is a motivator for many state-of-the-art AI systems, such as automated speech recognition tools that can caption videos for people who are deaf and hard of hearing, or language prediction algorithms that can augment communication for people with speech or cognitive disabilities. However, widely deployed AI systems may not work properly for PWD, or worse, may actively discriminate against them. These considerations regarding fairness in AI for PWD have thus far received little attention. In this position paper, we identify potential areas of concern regarding how several AI technology categories may impact particular disability constituencies if care is not taken in their design, development, and testing. We intend for this risk assessment of how various classes of AI might interact with various classes of disability to provide a roadmap for future research that is needed to gather data, test these hypotheses, and build more inclusive algorithms.

What's in a Name? Reducing Bias in Bios without Access to Protected Attributes

arXiv.org Machine Learning

There is a growing body of work that proposes methods for mitigating bias in machine learning systems. These methods typically rely on access to protected attributes such as race, gender, or age. However, this raises two significant challenges: (1) protected attributes may not be available or it may not be legal to use them, and (2) it is often desirable to simultaneously consider multiple protected attributes, as well as their intersections. In the context of mitigating bias in occupation classification, we propose a method for discouraging correlation between the predicted probability of an individual's true occupation and a word embedding of their name. This method leverages the societal biases that are encoded in word embeddings, eliminating the need for access to protected attributes. Crucially, it only requires access to individuals' names at training time and not at deployment time. We evaluate two variations of our proposed method using a large-scale dataset of online biographies. We find that both variations simultaneously reduce race and gender biases, with almost no reduction in the classifier's overall true positive rate.

Bias in Bios: A Case Study of Semantic Representation Bias in a High-Stakes Setting

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a large-scale study of gender bias in occupation classification, a task where the use of machine learning may lead to negative outcomes on peoples' lives. We analyze the potential allocation harms that can result from semantic representation bias. To do so, we study the impact on occupation classification of including explicit gender indicators---such as first names and pronouns---in different semantic representations of online biographies. Additionally, we quantify the bias that remains when these indicators are "scrubbed," and describe proxy behavior that occurs in the absence of explicit gender indicators. As we demonstrate, differences in true positive rates between genders are correlated with existing gender imbalances in occupations, which may compound these imbalances.

Datasheets for Datasets

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Currently there is no standard way to identify how a dataset was created, and what characteristics, motivations, and potential skews it represents. To begin to address this issue, we propose the concept of a datasheet for datasets, a short document to accompany public datasets, commercial APIs, and pretrained models. The goal of this proposal is to enable better communication between dataset creators and users, and help the AI community move toward greater transparency and accountability. By analogy, in computer hardware, it has become industry standard to accompany everything from the simplest components (e.g., resistors), to the most complex microprocessor chips, with datasheets detailing standard operating characteristics, test results, recommended usage, and other information. We outline some of the questions a datasheet for datasets should answer. These questions focus on when, where, and how the training data was gathered, its recommended use cases, and, in the case of human-centric datasets, information regarding the subjects' demographics and consent as applicable. We develop prototypes of datasheets for two well-known datasets: Labeled Faces in The Wild~\cite{lfw} and the Pang \& Lee Polarity Dataset~\cite{polarity}.

Locally Private Bayesian Inference for Count Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

As more aspects of social interaction are digitally recorded, there is a growing need to develop privacy-preserving data analysis methods. Social scientists will be more likely to adopt these methods if doing so entails minimal change to their current methodology. Toward that end, we present a general and modular method for privatizing Bayesian inference for Poisson factorization, a broad class of models that contains some of the most widely used models in the social sciences. Our method satisfies local differential privacy, which ensures that no single centralized server need ever store the non-privatized data. To formulate our local-privacy guarantees, we introduce and focus on limited-precision local privacy---the local privacy analog of limited-precision differential privacy (Flood et al., 2013). We present two case studies, one involving social networks and one involving text corpora, that test our method's ability to form the posterior distribution over latent variables under different levels of noise, and demonstrate our method's utility over a na\"{i}ve approach, wherein inference proceeds as usual, treating the privatized data as if it were not privatized.

Manipulating and Measuring Model Interpretability

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Despite a growing body of research focused on creating interpretable machine learning methods, there have been few empirical studies verifying whether interpretable methods achieve their intended effects on end users. We present a framework for assessing the effects of model interpretability on users via pre-registered experiments in which participants are shown functionally identical models that vary in factors thought to influence interpretability. Using this framework, we ran a sequence of large-scale randomized experiments, varying two putative drivers of interpretability: the number of features and the model transparency (clear or black-box). We measured how these factors impact trust in model predictions, the ability to simulate a model, and the ability to detect a model's mistakes. We found that participants who were shown a clear model with a small number of features were better able to simulate the model's predictions. However, we found no difference in multiple measures of trust and found that clear models did not improve the ability to correct mistakes. These findings suggest that interpretability research could benefit from more emphasis on empirically verifying that interpretable models achieve all their intended effects.

Poisson--Gamma Dynamical Systems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce a new dynamical system for sequentially observed multivariate count data. This model is based on the gamma--Poisson construction---a natural choice for count data---and relies on a novel Bayesian nonparametric prior that ties and shrinks the model parameters, thus avoiding overfitting. We present an efficient MCMC inference algorithm that advances recent work on augmentation schemes for inference in negative binomial models. Finally, we demonstrate the model's inductive bias using a variety of real-world data sets, showing that it exhibits superior predictive performance over other models and infers highly interpretable latent structure.