Collaborating Authors

Su, Lu

Towards Data Poisoning Attack against Knowledge Graph Embedding Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) is a technique for learning continuous embeddings for entities and relations in the knowledge graph.Due to its benefit to a variety of downstream tasks such as knowledge graph completion, question answering and recommendation, KGE has gained significant attention recently. Despite its effectiveness in a benign environment, KGE' robustness to adversarial attacks is not well-studied. Existing attack methods on graph data cannot be directly applied to attack the embeddings of knowledge graph due to its heterogeneity. To fill this gap, we propose a collection of data poisoning attack strategies, which can effectively manipulate the plausibility of arbitrary targeted facts in a knowledge graph by adding or deleting facts on the graph. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed attack strategies are verified by extensive evaluations on two widely-used benchmarks.

STFNets: Learning Sensing Signals from the Time-Frequency Perspective with Short-Time Fourier Neural Networks Machine Learning

Recent advances in deep learning motivate the use of deep neural networks in Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. These networks are modelled after signal processing in the human brain, thereby leading to significant advantages at perceptual tasks such as vision and speech recognition. IoT applications, however, often measure physical phenomena, where the underlying physics (such as inertia, wireless signal propagation, or the natural frequency of oscillation) are fundamentally a function of signal frequencies, offering better features in the frequency domain. This observation leads to a fundamental question: For IoT applications, can one develop a new brand of neural network structures that synthesize features inspired not only by the biology of human perception but also by the fundamental nature of physics? Hence, in this paper, instead of using conventional building blocks (e.g., convolutional and recurrent layers), we propose a new foundational neural network building block, the Short-Time Fourier Neural Network (STFNet). It integrates a widely-used time-frequency analysis method, the Short-Time Fourier Transform, into data processing to learn features directly in the frequency domain, where the physics of underlying phenomena leave better foot-prints. STFNets bring additional flexibility to time-frequency analysis by offering novel nonlinear learnable operations that are spectral-compatible. Moreover, STFNets show that transforming signals to a domain that is more connected to the underlying physics greatly simplifies the learning process. We demonstrate the effectiveness of STFNets with extensive experiments. STFNets significantly outperform the state-of-the-art deep learning models in all experiments. A STFNet, therefore, demonstrates superior capability as the fundamental building block of deep neural networks for IoT applications for various sensor inputs.

Towards Differentially Private Truth Discovery for Crowd Sensing Systems Artificial Intelligence

Nowadays, crowd sensing becomes increasingly more popular due to the ubiquitous usage of mobile devices. However, the quality of such human-generated sensory data varies significantly among different users. To better utilize sensory data, the problem of truth discovery, whose goal is to estimate user quality and infer reliable aggregated results through quality-aware data aggregation, has emerged as a hot topic. Although the existing truth discovery approaches can provide reliable aggregated results, they fail to protect the private information of individual users. Moreover, crowd sensing systems typically involve a large number of participants, making encryption or secure multi-party computation based solutions difficult to deploy. To address these challenges, in this paper, we propose an efficient privacy-preserving truth discovery mechanism with theoretical guarantees of both utility and privacy. The key idea of the proposed mechanism is to perturb data from each user independently and then conduct weighted aggregation among users' perturbed data. The proposed approach is able to assign user weights based on information quality, and thus the aggregated results will not deviate much from the true results even when large noise is added. We adapt local differential privacy definition to this privacy-preserving task and demonstrate the proposed mechanism can satisfy local differential privacy while preserving high aggregation accuracy. We formally quantify utility and privacy trade-off and further verify the claim by experiments on both synthetic data and a real-world crowd sensing system.

FastDeepIoT: Towards Understanding and Optimizing Neural Network Execution Time on Mobile and Embedded Devices Machine Learning

Deep neural networks show great potential as solutions to many sensing application problems, but their excessive resource demand slows down execution time, pausing a serious impediment to deployment on low-end devices. To address this challenge, recent literature focused on compressing neural network size to improve performance. We show that changing neural network size does not proportionally affect performance attributes of interest, such as execution time. Rather, extreme run-time nonlinearities exist over the network configuration space. Hence, we propose a novel framework, called FastDeepIoT, that uncovers the non-linear relation between neural network structure and execution time, then exploits that understanding to find network configurations that significantly improve the trade-off between execution time and accuracy on mobile and embedded devices. FastDeepIoT makes two key contributions. First, FastDeepIoT automatically learns an accurate and highly interpretable execution time model for deep neural networks on the target device. This is done without prior knowledge of either the hardware specifications or the detailed implementation of the used deep learning library. Second, FastDeepIoT informs a compression algorithm how to minimize execution time on the profiled device without impacting accuracy. We evaluate FastDeepIoT using three different sensing-related tasks on two mobile devices: Nexus 5 and Galaxy Nexus. FastDeepIoT further reduces the neural network execution time by $48\%$ to $78\%$ and energy consumption by $37\%$ to $69\%$ compared with the state-of-the-art compression algorithms.