Simon, H. A.


Human problem solving

Classics

The aim of the book is to advance the understanding of how humans think. It seeks to do so by putting forth a theory of human problem solving, along with a body of empirical evidence that permits assessment of the theory.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall


The Sciences of the Artificial

Classics

Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools -- chaos, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms -- for analyzing complexity and complex systems. There are updates throughout the book as well. These take into account important advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. The chapter "Economic Reality" has also been revised to reflect a change in emphasis in Simon's thinking about the respective roles of organizations and markets in economic systems.




Experiments with a heuristic compiler

Classics

"This report describes some experiments in constructing a compiler that makes use of heuristic problem~solving techniques such as those incorporated in the General Problem Solver (GPS) [1]. The experiments were aimed at the dual objectives of throwing light on some of the problems of constructing more powerful programming languages and compilers, and of testing whether the task of writing a computer program can be regarded as a "problem" in the sense in which that term is used in GPS. The present paper is concerned primarily with the second objective--with analyzing some of the problem-solving processes that are involved in writing computer programs. At the present stage of their development, no claims will be made for the heuristic programming procedures described here as practical approaches to the construction of compilers. Their interest lies in what they teach us about the nature of the programming task."See also: Artificial intelligence and self-organizing systems: Experiments with a Heuristic CompilerJACM, 10, 493-€“506


GPS, a program that simulates human thought

Classics

This article is concerned with the psychology of human thinking. It setsforth a theory to explain how some humans try to solve some simpleformal problems. The research from which the theory emerged is intimatelyrelated to the field of information processing and the construction of intelligentautomata, and the theory is expressed in the form of a computerprogram. The rapid technical advances in the art of programming digitalcomputers to do sophisticated tasks have made such a theory feasible.It is often argued that a careful line must be drawn between the attemptto accomplish with machines the same tasks that humans perform, andthe attempt to simulate the processes humans actually use to accomplishthese tasks. The program discussed in the report, GPS (General ProblemSolver), maximally confuses the two approaches—with-mutual"!benefit. Lerende Automaten, Munich: Oldenberg KG


IPL-V: Information Processing Language V Manual

Classics

The complete rules for coding in Information Processing Language-V (IPL-V), and the documentation of extensions incorporated since publication of the Information Processing Language-V Manual. A summary of extensions and the minor modifications to the language is contained in the final section. An index, a list of the basic IPL-V processes, and a full-scale copy of the coding sheet appear at the end of the Memorandum.See also: Google Books.Prentice·Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.


Elements of a theory of human problem solving

Classics

A description of a theory of problem-solving in terms of information processes amenable for use in a digital computer. The postulates are: "A control system consisting of a number of memories, which contain symbolized information and are interconnected by various ordering relations; a number of primitive information processes, which operate on the information in the memories; a perfectly definite set of rules for combining these processes into whole programs of processing." Examples are given of how processes that occur in behavior can be realized out of elementary information processes. The heuristic value of this theory is pertinent to theories of learning, perception, and concept formation.Psychological Review, March, 65(3):151-166


The Processes of Creative Thinking

Classics

"We ask first whether we need a theory of creative thinking distinct from a theory of problem solving. Subject to minor qualifications, we conclude there is no such need -- that we call problem solving creative when the problems solved are relatively new and difficult. Next, we summarize what has been learned about problem solving by simulating certain human problem solving processes with digital computers. Finally, we indicate some of the differences in degreee that might be observed in comparing relatively creative with relative routine problem solving."RAND Corporation Paper P-1320, Santa Monica, Calif