Shrobe, Howard


AWDRAT: A Cognitive Middleware System for Information Survivability

AI Magazine

The infrastructure of modern society is controlled by software systems that are vulnerable to attacks. Many such attacks, launched by "recreational hackers" have already led to severe disruptions and significant cost. It, therefore, is critical that we find ways to protect such systems and to enable them to continue functioning even after a successful attack. This article describes AWDRAT, a prototype middleware system for providing survivability to both new and legacy applications. AWDRAT stands for architectural differencing, wrappers, diagnosis, recovery, adaptive software, and trust modeling. AWDRAT uses these techniques to gain visibility into the execution of an application system and to compare the application's actual behavior to that which is expected. In the case of a deviation, AWDRAT conducts a diagnosis that determines which computational resources are likely to have been compromised and then adds these assessments to its trust model. The trust model in turn guides the recovery process, particularly by guiding the system in its choice among functionally equivalent methods and resources.AWDRAT has been applied to and evaluated on an example application system, a graphical editor for constructing mission plans. We describe a series of experiments that were performed to test the effectiveness of AWDRAT in recognizing and recovering from simulated attacks, and we present data showing the effectiveness of AWDRAT in detecting a variety of compromises to the application system (approximately 90 percent of all simulated attacks are detected, diagnosed, and corrected). We also summarize some lessons learned from the AWDRAT experiments and suggest approaches for comprehensive application protection methods and techniques.


Computational Vulnerability Analysis for Information Survivability

AI Magazine

The infrastructure of modern society is controlled by software systems. These systems are vulnerable to attacks; several such attacks, launched by "recreation hackers," have already led to severe disruption. This article is set in the context of self-adaptive survivable systems: software that judges the trustworthiness of the computational resources in its environment and that chooses how to achieve its goals in light of this trust model. Self-adaptive survivable systems contain models of their intended behavior; models of the required computational resources; models of the ways in which these resources can be compromised; and finally, models of the ways in which a system can be attacked and how such attacks can lead to compromises of the computational resources.


What Does the Future Hold?

AI Magazine

I was asked to give a visionary talk about the future applications of Artificial Intelligence technology; but I should warn you that I'm actually not very good as a visionary. Most of my predictions about what will happen in the industry don't come true even though they ought to. So I'm not going to tell you what the future holds; what I will do is to point out some of the technological trends that are at work. Finally, I'll discuss how the development of practical applications ought to interact with the scientific enterprise of trying to understand intelligence, in particular, human intelligence.


Diagnosing Delivery Problems in the White House Information-Distribution System

AI Magazine

As part of a collaboration with the White House Office of Media Affairs, members of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology designed a system, called COMLINK, that distributes a daily stream of documents released by the Office of Media Affairs. Approximately 4,000 direct subscribers receive information from this service, but more than 100,000 people receive the information through redistribution channels. The information is distributed through e-mail and the World Wide Web. These invalid subscriptions cause a backwash of hundreds of bounced-mail messages each day that must be processed by the operators of the COMLINK system.


The Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence Conference: Past and Future

AI Magazine

This article is a reflection on the goals and focus of the Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence (IAAI) Conference. The author begins with an historical review of the conference. He then goes on to discuss the role of the IAAI conference, including an examination of the relationship between AI scientific research and the application of AI technology. He concludes with a presentation of the new vision for the IAAI conference.


Knowledge-Based Systems Research and Applications in Japan, 1992

AI Magazine

Representatives of universities and businesses were chosen by the Japan Technology Evaluation Center to investigate the state of the technology in Japan relative to the United States. The panel's report focused on applications, tools, and research and development in universities and industry and on major national projects.


What Is a Knowledge Representation?

AI Magazine

Although knowledge representation is one of the central and, in some ways, most familiar concepts in AI, the most fundamental question about it -- What is it? Numerous papers have lobbied for one or another variety of representation, other papers have argued for various properties a representation should have, and still others have focused on properties that are important to the notion of representation in general. In this article, we go back to basics to address the question directly. We believe that the answer can best be understood in terms of five important and distinctly different roles that a representation plays, each of which places different and, at times, conflicting demands on the properties a representation should have.