If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
In this paper we propose mmFall - a novel fall detection system, which comprises of (i) the emerging millimeter-wave (mmWave) radar sensor to collect the human body's point cloud along with the body centroid, and (ii) a variational recurrent autoencoder (VRAE) to compute the anomaly level of the body motion based on the acquired point cloud. A fall is claimed to have occurred when the spike in anomaly level and the drop in centroid height occur simultaneously. The mmWave radar sensor provides several advantages, such as privacycompliance and high-sensitivity to motion, over the traditional sensing modalities. However, (i) randomness in radar point cloud data and (ii) difficulties in fall collection/labeling in the traditional supervised fall detection approaches are the two main challenges. To overcome the randomness in radar data, the proposed VRAE uses variational inference, a probabilistic approach rather than the traditional deterministic approach, to infer the posterior probability of the body's latent motion state at each frame, followed by a recurrent neural network (RNN) to learn the temporal features of the motion over multiple frames. Moreover, to circumvent the difficulties in fall data collection/labeling, the VRAE is built upon an autoencoder architecture in a semi-supervised approach, and trained on only normal activities of daily living (ADL) such that in the inference stage the VRAE will generate a spike in the anomaly level once an abnormal motion, such as fall, occurs. During the experiment, we implemented the VRAE along with two other baselines, and tested on the dataset collected in an apartment. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicates that our proposed model outperforms the other two baselines, and achieves 98% detection out of 50 falls at the expense of just 2 false alarms.
In multimodal traffic monitoring, we gather traffic statistics for distinct transportation modes, such as pedestrians, cars and bicycles, in order to analyze and improve people's daily mobility in terms of safety and convenience. On account of its robustness to bad light and adverse weather conditions, and inherent speed measurement ability, the radar sensor is a suitable option for this application. However, the sparse radar data from conventional commercial radars make it extremely challenging for transportation mode classification. Thus, we propose to use a high-resolution millimeter-wave(mmWave) radar sensor to obtain a relatively richer radar point cloud representation for a traffic monitoring scenario. Based on a new feature vector, we use the multivariate Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to do the radar point cloud segmentation, i.e. `point-wise' classification, in an unsupervised learning environment. In our experiment, we collected radar point clouds for pedestrians and cars, which also contained the inevitable clutter from the surroundings. The experimental results using GMM on the new feature vector demonstrated a good segmentation performance in terms of the intersection-over-union (IoU) metrics. The detailed methodology and validation metrics are presented and discussed.
In this paper, mm-Pose, a novel approach to detect and track human skeletons in real-time using an mmWave radar, is proposed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first method to detect >15 distinct skeletal joints using mmWave radar reflection signals. The proposed method would find several applications in traffic monitoring systems, autonomous vehicles, patient monitoring systems and defense forces to detect and track human skeleton for effective and preventive decision making in real-time. The use of radar makes the system operationally robust to scene lighting and adverse weather conditions. The reflected radar point cloud in range, azimuth and elevation are first resolved and projected in Range-Azimuth and Range-Elevation planes. A novel low-size high-resolution radar-to-image representation is also presented, that overcomes the sparsity in traditional point cloud data and offers significant reduction in the subsequent machine learning architecture. The RGB channels were assigned with the normalized values of range, elevation/azimuth and the power level of the reflection signals for each of the points. A forked CNN architecture was used to predict the real-world position of the skeletal joints in 3-D space, using the radar-to-image representation. The proposed method was tested for a single human scenario for four primary motions, (i) Walking, (ii) Swinging left arm, (iii) Swinging right arm, and (iv) Swinging both arms to validate accurate predictions for motion in range, azimuth and elevation. The detailed methodology, implementation, challenges, and validation results are presented.
To address potential gaps noted in patient monitoring in the hospital, a novel patient behavior detection system using mmWave radar and deep convolution neural network (CNN), which supports the simultaneous recognition of multiple patients' behaviors in real-time, is proposed. In this study, we use an mmWave radar to track multiple patients and detect the scattering point cloud of each one. For each patient, the Doppler pattern of the point cloud over a time period is collected as the behavior signature. A three-layer CNN model is created to classify the behavior for each patient. The tracking and point clouds detection algorithm was also implemented on an mmWave radar hardware platform with an embedded graphics processing unit (GPU) board to collect Doppler pattern and run the CNN model. A training dataset of six types of behavior were collected, over a long duration, to train the model using Adam optimizer with an objective to minimize cross-entropy loss function. Lastly, the system was tested for real-time operation and obtained a very good inference accuracy when predicting each patient's behavior in a two-patient scenario.