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Selman, Bart


A Novel Automated Curriculum Strategy to Solve Hard Sokoban Planning Instances

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In recent years, we have witnessed tremendous progress in deep reinforcement learning (RL) for tasks such as Go, Chess, video games, and robot control. Nevertheless, other combinatorial domains, such as AI planning, still pose considerable challenges for RL approaches. The key difficulty in those domains is that a positive reward signal becomes {\em exponentially rare} as the minimal solution length increases. So, an RL approach loses its training signal. There has been promising recent progress by using a curriculum-driven learning approach that is designed to solve a single hard instance. We present a novel {\em automated} curriculum approach that dynamically selects from a pool of unlabeled training instances of varying task complexity guided by our {\em difficulty quantum momentum} strategy. We show how the smoothness of the task hardness impacts the final learning results. In particular, as the size of the instance pool increases, the ``hardness gap'' decreases, which facilitates a smoother automated curriculum based learning process. Our automated curriculum approach dramatically improves upon the previous approaches. We show our results on Sokoban, which is a traditional PSPACE-complete planning problem and presents a great challenge even for specialized solvers. Our RL agent can solve hard instances that are far out of reach for any previous state-of-the-art Sokoban solver. In particular, our approach can uncover plans that require hundreds of steps, while the best previous search methods would take many years of computing time to solve such instances. In addition, we show that we can further boost the RL performance with an intricate coupling of our automated curriculum approach with a curiosity-driven search strategy and a graph neural net representation.


Automating Crystal-Structure Phase Mapping: Combining Deep Learning with Constraint Reasoning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Crystal-structure phase mapping is a core, long-standing challenge in materials science that requires identifying crystal structures, or mixtures thereof, in synthesized materials. Materials science experts excel at solving simple systems but cannot solve complex systems, creating a major bottleneck in high-throughput materials discovery. Herein we show how to automate crystal-structure phase mapping. We formulate phase mapping as an unsupervised pattern demixing problem and describe how to solve it using Deep Reasoning Networks (DRNets). DRNets combine deep learning with constraint reasoning for incorporating scientific prior knowledge and consequently require only a modest amount of (unlabeled) data. DRNets compensate for the limited data by exploiting and magnifying the rich prior knowledge about the thermodynamic rules governing the mixtures of crystals with constraint reasoning seamlessly integrated into neural network optimization. DRNets are designed with an interpretable latent space for encoding prior-knowledge domain constraints and seamlessly integrate constraint reasoning into neural network optimization. DRNets surpass previous approaches on crystal-structure phase mapping, unraveling the Bi-Cu-V oxide phase diagram, and aiding the discovery of solar-fuels materials.


Structure Amplification on Multi-layer Stochastic Block Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Much of the complexity of social, biological, and engineered systems arises from a network of complex interactions connecting many basic components. Network analysis tools have been successful at uncovering latent structure termed communities in such networks. However, some of the most interesting structure can be difficult to uncover because it is obscured by the more dominant structure. Our previous work proposes a general structure amplification technique called HICODE that uncovers many layers of functional hidden structure in complex networks. HICODE incrementally weakens dominant structure through randomization allowing the hidden functionality to emerge, and uncovers these hidden structure in real-world networks that previous methods rarely uncover. In this work, we conduct a comprehensive and systematic theoretical analysis on the hidden community structure. In what follows, we define multi-layer stochastic block model, and provide theoretical support using the model on why the existence of hidden structure will make the detection of dominant structure harder compared with equivalent random noise. We then provide theoretical proofs that the iterative reducing methods could help promote the uncovering of hidden structure as well as boosting the detection quality of dominant structure.


Curriculum-Driven Multi-Agent Learning and the Role of Implicit Communication in Teamwork

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose a curriculum-driven learning strategy for solving difficult multi-agent coordination tasks. Our method is inspired by a study of animal communication, which shows that two straightforward design features (mutual reward and decentralization) support a vast spectrum of communication protocols in nature. We highlight the importance of similarly interpreting emergent communication as a spectrum. We introduce a toroidal, continuous-space pursuit-evasion environment and show that naive decentralized learning does not perform well. We then propose a novel curriculum-driven strategy for multi-agent learning. Experiments with pursuit-evasion show that our approach enables decentralized pursuers to learn to coordinate and capture a superior evader, significantly outperforming sophisticated analytical policies. We argue through additional quantitative analysis -- including influence-based measures such as Instantaneous Coordination -- that emergent implicit communication plays a large role in enabling superior levels of coordination.


Fairness for Cooperative Multi-Agent Learning with Equivariant Policies

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We study fairness through the lens of cooperative multi-agent learning. Our work is motivated by empirical evidence that naive maximization of team reward yields unfair outcomes for individual team members. To address fairness in multi-agent contexts, we introduce team fairness, a group-based fairness measure for multi-agent learning. We then incorporate team fairness into policy optimization -- introducing Fairness through Equivariance (Fair-E), a novel learning strategy that achieves provably fair reward distributions. We then introduce Fairness through Equivariance Regularization (Fair-ER) as a soft-constraint version of Fair-E and show that Fair-ER reaches higher levels of utility than Fair-E and fairer outcomes than policies with no equivariance. Finally, we investigate the fairness-utility trade-off in multi-agent settings.


Low-Bandwidth Communication Emerges Naturally in Multi-Agent Learning Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this work, we study emergent communication through the lens of cooperative multi-agent behavior in nature. Using insights from animal communication, we propose a spectrum from low-bandwidth (e.g. pheromone trails) to high-bandwidth (e.g. compositional language) communication that is based on the cognitive, perceptual, and behavioral capabilities of social agents. Through a series of experiments with pursuit-evasion games, we identify multi-agent reinforcement learning algorithms as a computational model for the low-bandwidth end of the communication spectrum.


Solving Hard AI Planning Instances Using Curriculum-Driven Deep Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Despite significant progress in general AI planning, certain domains remain out of reach of current AI planning systems. Sokoban is a PSPACE-complete planning task and represents one of the hardest domains for current AI planners. Even domain-specific specialized search methods fail quickly due to the exponential search complexity on hard instances. Our approach based on deep reinforcement learning augmented with a curriculum-driven method is the first one to solve hard instances within one day of training while other modern solvers cannot solve these instances within any reasonable time limit. In contrast to prior efforts, which use carefully handcrafted pruning techniques, our approach automatically uncovers domain structure. Our results reveal that deep RL provides a promising framework for solving previously unsolved AI planning problems, provided a proper training curriculum can be devised.


Accelerated Adaptive Markov Chain for Partition Function Computation

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a novel Adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to compute the partition function. In particular, we show how to accelerate a flat histogram sampling technique by significantly reducing the number of null moves'' in the chain, while maintaining asymptotic convergence properties. Our experiments show that our method converges quickly to highly accurate solutions on a range of benchmark instances, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods such as IJGP, TRW, and Gibbs sampling both in run-time and accuracy. We also show how obtaining a so-called density of states distribution allows for efficient weight learning in Markov Logic theories. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.


Density Propagation and Improved Bounds on the Partition Function

Neural Information Processing Systems

Given a probabilistic graphical model, its density of states is a function that, for any likelihood value, gives the number of configurations with that probability. We introduce a novel message-passing algorithm called Density Propagation (DP) for estimating this function. We show that DP is exact for tree-structured graphical models and is, in general, a strict generalization of both sum-product and max-product algorithms. Further, we use density of states and tree decomposition to introduce a new family of upper and lower bounds on the partition function. For any tree decompostion, the new upper bound based on finer-grained density of state information is provably at least as tight as previously known bounds based on convexity of the log-partition function, and strictly stronger if a general condition holds.


Understanding Batch Normalization

Neural Information Processing Systems

Batch normalization (BN) is a technique to normalize activations in intermediate layers of deep neural networks. Its tendency to improve accuracy and speed up training have established BN as a favorite technique in deep learning. Yet, despite its enormous success, there remains little consensus on the exact reason and mechanism behind these improvements. In this paper we take a step towards a better understanding of BN, following an empirical approach. We conduct several experiments, and show that BN primarily enables training with larger learning rates, which is the cause for faster convergence and better generalization.