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Sabourin, Anne


Heavy-tailed Representations, Text Polarity Classification & Data Augmentation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The dominant approaches to text representation in natural language rely on learning embeddings on massive corpora which have convenient properties such as compositionality and distance preservation. In this paper, we develop a novel method to learn a heavy-tailed embedding with desirable regularity properties regarding the distributional tails, which allows to analyze the points far away from the distribution bulk using the framework of multivariate extreme value theory. In particular, a classifier dedicated to the tails of the proposed embedding is obtained which performance outperforms the baseline. This classifier exhibits a scale invariance property which we leverage by introducing a novel text generation method for label preserving dataset augmentation. Numerical experiments on synthetic and real text data demonstrate the relevance of the proposed framework and confirm that this method generates meaningful sentences with controllable attribute, e.g.


On Binary Classification in Extreme Regions

Neural Information Processing Systems

In pattern recognition, a random label Y is to be predicted based upon observing a random vector X valued in $\mathbb{R} d$ with d 1 by means of a classification rule with minimum probability of error. As a consequence, empirical risk minimizers generally perform very poorly in extreme regions. It is the purpose of this paper to develop a general framework for classification in the extremes. Precisely, under non-parametric heavy-tail assumptions for the class distributions, we prove that a natural and asymptotic notion of risk, accounting for predictive performance in extreme regions of the input space, can be defined and show that minimizers of an empirical version of a non-asymptotic approximant of this dedicated risk, based on a fraction of the largest observations, lead to classification rules with good generalization capacity, by means of maximal deviation inequalities in low probability regions. Beyond theoretical results, numerical experiments are presented in order to illustrate the relevance of the approach developed.


A Multivariate Extreme Value Theory Approach to Anomaly Clustering and Visualization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In a wide variety of situations, anomalies in the behaviour of a complex system, whose health is monitored through the observation of a random vector X = (X1,. .. , X d) valued in R d , correspond to the simultaneous occurrence of extreme values for certain subgroups $\alpha$ $\subset$ {1,. .. , d} of variables Xj. Under the heavy-tail assumption, which is precisely appropriate for modeling these phenomena, statistical methods relying on multivariate extreme value theory have been developed in the past few years for identifying such events/subgroups. This paper exploits this approach much further by means of a novel mixture model that permits to describe the distribution of extremal observations and where the anomaly type $\alpha$ is viewed as a latent variable. One may then take advantage of the model by assigning to any extreme point a posterior probability for each anomaly type $\alpha$, defining implicitly a similarity measure between anomalies. It is explained at length how the latter permits to cluster extreme observations and obtain an informative planar representation of anomalies using standard graph-mining tools. The relevance and usefulness of the clustering and 2-d visual display thus designed is illustrated on simulated datasets and on real observations as well, in the aeronautics application domain.


Principal Component Analysis for Multivariate Extremes

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The first order behavior of multivariate heavy-tailed random vectors above large radial thresholds is ruled by a limit measure in a regular variation framework. For a high dimensional vector, a reasonable assumption is that the support of this measure is concentrated on a lower dimensional subspace, meaning that certain linear combinations of the components are much likelier to be large than others. Identifying this subspace and thus reducing the dimension will facilitate a refined statistical analysis. In this work we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to a re-scaled version of radially thresholded observations. Within the statistical learning framework of empirical risk minimization, our main focus is to analyze the squared reconstruction error for the exceedances over large radial thresholds. We prove that the empirical risk converges to the true risk, uniformly over all projection subspaces. As a consequence, the best projection subspace is shown to converge in probability to the optimal one, in terms of the Hausdorff distance between their intersections with the unit sphere. In addition, if the exceedances are re-scaled to the unit ball, we obtain finite sample uniform guarantees to the reconstruction error pertaining to the estimated projection sub-space. Numerical experiments illustrate the relevance of the proposed framework for practical purposes.


On Binary Classification in Extreme Regions

Neural Information Processing Systems

In pattern recognition, a random label Y is to be predicted based upon observing a random vector X valued in $\mathbb{R}^d$ with d>1 by means of a classification rule with minimum probability of error. In a wide variety of applications, ranging from finance/insurance to environmental sciences through teletraffic data analysis for instance, extreme (i.e. very large) observations X are of crucial importance, while contributing in a negligible manner to the (empirical) error however, simply because of their rarity. As a consequence, empirical risk minimizers generally perform very poorly in extreme regions. It is the purpose of this paper to develop a general framework for classification in the extremes. Precisely, under non-parametric heavy-tail assumptions for the class distributions, we prove that a natural and asymptotic notion of risk, accounting for predictive performance in extreme regions of the input space, can be defined and show that minimizers of an empirical version of a non-asymptotic approximant of this dedicated risk, based on a fraction of the largest observations, lead to classification rules with good generalization capacity, by means of maximal deviation inequalities in low probability regions. Beyond theoretical results, numerical experiments are presented in order to illustrate the relevance of the approach developed.


On Binary Classification in Extreme Regions

Neural Information Processing Systems

In pattern recognition, a random label Y is to be predicted based upon observing a random vector X valued in $\mathbb{R}^d$ with d>1 by means of a classification rule with minimum probability of error. In a wide variety of applications, ranging from finance/insurance to environmental sciences through teletraffic data analysis for instance, extreme (i.e. very large) observations X are of crucial importance, while contributing in a negligible manner to the (empirical) error however, simply because of their rarity. As a consequence, empirical risk minimizers generally perform very poorly in extreme regions. It is the purpose of this paper to develop a general framework for classification in the extremes. Precisely, under non-parametric heavy-tail assumptions for the class distributions, we prove that a natural and asymptotic notion of risk, accounting for predictive performance in extreme regions of the input space, can be defined and show that minimizers of an empirical version of a non-asymptotic approximant of this dedicated risk, based on a fraction of the largest observations, lead to classification rules with good generalization capacity, by means of maximal deviation inequalities in low probability regions. Beyond theoretical results, numerical experiments are presented in order to illustrate the relevance of the approach developed.


Max K-armed bandit: On the ExtremeHunter algorithm and beyond

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper is devoted to the study of the max K-armed bandit problem, which consists in sequentially allocating resources in order to detect extreme values. Our contribution is twofold. We first significantly refine the analysis of the ExtremeHunter algorithm carried out in Carpentier and Valko (2014), and next propose an alternative approach, showing that, remarkably, Extreme Bandits can be reduced to a classical version of the bandit problem to a certain extent. Beyond the formal analysis, these two approaches are compared through numerical experiments.


Sparse Representation of Multivariate Extremes with Applications to Anomaly Ranking

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Extremes play a special role in Anomaly Detection. Beyond inference and simulation purposes, probabilistic tools borrowed from Extreme Value Theory (EVT), such as the angular measure, can also be used to design novel statistical learning methods for Anomaly Detection/ranking. This paper proposes a new algorithm based on multivariate EVT to learn how to rank observations in a high dimensional space with respect to their degree of 'abnormality'. The procedure relies on an original dimension-reduction technique in the extreme domain that possibly produces a sparse representation of multivariate extremes and allows to gain insight into the dependence structure thereof, escaping the curse of dimensionality. The representation output by the unsupervised methodology we propose here can be combined with any Anomaly Detection technique tailored to non-extreme data. As it performs linearly with the dimension and almost linearly in the data (in O(dn log n)), it fits to large scale problems. The approach in this paper is novel in that EVT has never been used in its multivariate version in the field of Anomaly Detection. Illustrative experimental results provide strong empirical evidence of the relevance of our approach.


Sparsity in Multivariate Extremes with Applications to Anomaly Detection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Capturing the dependence structure of multivariate extreme events is a major concern in many fields involving the management of risks stemming from multiple sources, e.g. portfolio monitoring, insurance, environmental risk management and anomaly detection. One convenient (non-parametric) characterization of extremal dependence in the framework of multivariate Extreme Value Theory (EVT) is the angular measure, which provides direct information about the probable 'directions' of extremes, that is, the relative contribution of each feature/coordinate of the 'largest' observations. Modeling the angular measure in high dimensional problems is a major challenge for the multivariate analysis of rare events. The present paper proposes a novel methodology aiming at exhibiting a sparsity pattern within the dependence structure of extremes. This is done by estimating the amount of mass spread by the angular measure on representative sets of directions, corresponding to specific sub-cones of $R^d\_+$. This dimension reduction technique paves the way towards scaling up existing multivariate EVT methods. Beyond a non-asymptotic study providing a theoretical validity framework for our method, we propose as a direct application a --first-- anomaly detection algorithm based on multivariate EVT. This algorithm builds a sparse 'normal profile' of extreme behaviours, to be confronted with new (possibly abnormal) extreme observations. Illustrative experimental results provide strong empirical evidence of the relevance of our approach.


On Anomaly Ranking and Excess-Mass Curves

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Learning how to rank multivariate unlabeled observations depending on their degree of abnormality/novelty is a crucial problem in a wide range of applications. In practice, it generally consists in building a real valued "scoring" function on the feature space so as to quantify to which extent observations should be considered as abnormal. In the 1-d situation, measurements are generally considered as "abnormal" when they are remote from central measures such as the mean or the median. Anomaly detection then relies on tail analysis of the variable of interest. Extensions to the multivariate setting are far from straightforward and it is precisely the main purpose of this paper to introduce a novel and convenient (functional) criterion for measuring the performance of a scoring function regarding the anomaly ranking task, referred to as the Excess-Mass curve (EM curve). In addition, an adaptive algorithm for building a scoring function based on unlabeled data X1 , . . . , Xn with a nearly optimal EM is proposed and is analyzed from a statistical perspective.