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Nikolentzos, Giannis


Graph Kernels: A Survey

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Graph kernels have attracted a lot of attention during the last decade, and have evolved into a rapidly developing branch of learning on structured data. During the past 20 years, the considerable research activity that occurred in the field resulted in the development of dozens of graph kernels, each focusing on specific structural properties of graphs. Graph kernels have proven successful in a wide range of domains, ranging from social networks to bioinformatics. The goal of this survey is to provide a unifying view of the literature on graph kernels. In particular, we present a comprehensive overview of a wide range of graph kernels. Furthermore, we perform an experimental evaluation of several of those kernels on publicly available datasets, and provide a comparative study. Finally, we discuss key applications of graph kernels, and outline some challenges that remain to be addressed.


Permute Me Softly: Learning Soft Permutations for Graph Representations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph neural networks (GNNs) have recently emerged as a dominant paradigm for machine learning with graphs. Research on GNNs has mainly focused on the family of message passing neural networks (MPNNs). Similar to the Weisfeiler-Leman (WL) test of isomorphism, these models follow an iterative neighborhood aggregation procedure to update vertex representations, and they next compute graph representations by aggregating the representations of the vertices. Although very successful, MPNNs have been studied intensively in the past few years. Thus, there is a need for novel architectures which will allow research in the field to break away from MPNNs. In this paper, we propose a new graph neural network model, so-called $\pi$-GNN which learns a "soft" permutation (i.e., doubly stochastic) matrix for each graph, and thus projects all graphs into a common vector space. The learned matrices impose a "soft" ordering on the vertices of the input graphs, and based on this ordering, the adjacency matrices are mapped into vectors. These vectors can be fed into fully-connected or convolutional layers to deal with supervised learning tasks. In case of large graphs, to make the model more efficient in terms of running time and memory, we further relax the doubly stochastic matrices to row stochastic matrices. We empirically evaluate the model on graph classification and graph regression datasets and show that it achieves performance competitive with state-of-the-art models.


United We Stand: Transfer Graph Neural Networks for Pandemic Forecasting

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has affected millions of individuals around the world and has posed a significant challenge to global healthcare. From the early days of the pandemic, it became clear that it is highly contagious and that human mobility contributes significantly to its spread. In this paper, we study the impact of population movement on the spread of COVID-19, and we capitalize on recent advances in the field of representation learning on graphs to capture the underlying dynamics. Specifically, we create a graph where nodes correspond to a country's regions and the edge weights denote human mobility from one region to another. Then, we employ graph neural networks to predict the number of future cases, encoding the underlying diffusion patterns that govern the spread into our learning model. Furthermore, to account for the limited amount of training data, we capitalize on the pandemic's asynchronous outbreaks across countries and use a model-agnostic meta-learning based method to transfer knowledge from one country's model to another's. We compare the proposed approach against simple baselines and more traditional forecasting techniques in 3 European countries. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our method, highlighting the usefulness of GNNs in epidemiological prediction. Transfer learning provides the best model, highlighting its potential to improve the accuracy of the predictions in case of secondary waves, if data from past/parallel outbreaks is utilized.


EvoNet: A Neural Network for Predicting the Evolution of Dynamic Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Neural networks for structured data like graphs have been studied extensively in recent years. To date, the bulk of research activity has focused mainly on static graphs. However, most real-world networks are dynamic since their topology tends to change over time. Predicting the evolution of dynamic graphs is a task of high significance in the area of graph mining. Despite its practical importance, the task has not been explored in depth so far, mainly due to its challenging nature. In this paper, we propose a model that predicts the evolution of dynamic graphs. Specifically, we use a graph neural network along with a recurrent architecture to capture the temporal evolution patterns of dynamic graphs. Then, we employ a generative model which predicts the topology of the graph at the next time step and constructs a graph instance that corresponds to that topology. We evaluate the proposed model on several artificial datasets following common network evolving dynamics, as well as on real-world datasets. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.


Ego-based Entropy Measures for Structural Representations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In complex networks, nodes that share similar structural characteristics often exhibit similar roles (e.g type of users in a social network or the hierarchical position of employees in a company). In order to leverage this relationship, a growing literature proposed latent representations that identify structurally equivalent nodes. However, most of the existing methods require high time and space complexity. In this paper, we propose VNEstruct, a simple approach for generating low-dimensional structural node embeddings, that is both time efficient and robust to perturbations of the graph structure. The proposed approach focuses on the local neighborhood of each node and employs the Von Neumann entropy, an information-theoretic tool, to extract features that capture the neighborhood's topology. Moreover, on graph classification tasks, we suggest the utilization of the generated structural embeddings for the transformation of an attributed graph structure into a set of augmented node attributes. Empirically, we observe that the proposed approach exhibits robustness on structural role identification tasks and state-of-the-art performance on graph classification tasks, while maintaining very high computational speed.


k-hop Graph Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph neural networks (GNNs) have emerged recently as a powerful architecture for learning node and graph representations. Standard GNNs have the same expressive power as the Weisfeiler-Leman test of graph isomorphism in terms of distinguishing non-isomorphic graphs. However, it was recently shown that this test cannot identify fundamental graph properties such as connectivity and triangle freeness. We show that GNNs also suffer from the same limitation. To address this limitation, we propose a more expressive architecture, k-hop GNNs, which updates a node's representation by aggregating information not only from its direct neighbors, but from its k-hop neighborhood. We show that the proposed architecture can identify fundamental graph properties. We evaluate the proposed architecture on standard node classification and graph classification datasets. Our experimental evaluation confirms our theoretical findings since the proposed model achieves performance better or comparable to standard GNNs and to state-of-the-art algorithms.


Graph Kernels: A Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph kernels have attracted a lot of attention during the last decade, and have evolved into a rapidly developing branch of learning on structured data. During the past 20 years, the considerable research activity that occurred in the field resulted in the development of dozens of graph kernels, each focusing on specific structural properties of graphs. Graph kernels have proven successful in a wide range of domains, ranging from social networks to bioinformatics. The goal of this survey is to provide a unifying view of the literature on graph kernels. In particular, we present a comprehensive overview of a wide range of graph kernels. Furthermore, we perform an experimental evaluation of several of those kernels on publicly available datasets, and provide a comparative study. Finally, we discuss key applications of graph kernels, and outline some challenges that remain to be addressed.


Rep the Set: Neural Networks for Learning Set Representations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In several domains, data objects can be decomposed into sets of simpler objects. It is then natural to represent each object as the set of its components or parts. Many conventional machine learning algorithms are unable to process this kind of representations, since sets may vary in cardinality and elements lack a meaningful ordering. In this paper, we present a new neural network architecture, called RepSet, that can handle examples that are represented as sets of vectors. The proposed model computes the correspondences between an input set and some hidden sets by solving a series of network flow problems. This representation is then fed to a standard neural network architecture to produce the output. The architecture allows end-to-end gradient-based learning. We demonstrate RepSet on classification tasks, including text categorization, and graph classification, and we show that the proposed neural network achieves performance better or comparable to state-of-the-art algorithms.


Message Passing Graph Kernels

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph kernels have recently emerged as a promising approach for tackling the graph similarity and learning tasks at the same time. In this paper, we propose a general framework for designing graph kernels. The proposed framework capitalizes on the well-known message passing scheme on graphs. The kernels derived from the framework consist of two components. The first component is a kernel between vertices, while the second component is a kernel between graphs. The main idea behind the proposed framework is that the representations of the vertices are implicitly updated using an iterative procedure. Then, these representations serve as the building blocks of a kernel that compares pairs of graphs. We derive four instances of the proposed framework, and show through extensive experiments that these instances are competitive with state-of-the-art methods in various tasks.


GraKeL: A Graph Kernel Library in Python

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The problem of accurately measuring the similarity between graphs is at the core of many applications in a variety of disciplines. Graph kernels have recently emerged as a promising approach to this problem. There are now many kernels, each focusing on different structural aspects of graphs. Here, we present GraKeL, a library that unifies several graph kernels into a common framework. The library is written in Python and is build on top of scikit-learn. It is simple to use and can be naturally combined with scikit-learn's modules to build a complete machine learning pipeline for tasks such as graph classification and clustering. The code is BSD licensed and is available at: https://github.com/ysig/GraKeL.