If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
With noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers showing great promise for near-term applications, a number of machine learning algorithms based on parametrized quantum circuits have been suggested as possible means to achieve learning advantages. Yet, our understanding of how these quantum machine learning models compare, both to existing classical models and to each other, remains limited. A big step in this direction has been made by relating them to so-called kernel methods from classical machine learning. By building on this connection, previous works have shown that a systematic reformulation of many quantum machine learning models as kernel models was guaranteed to improve their training performance. In this work, we first extend the applicability of this result to a more general family of parametrized quantum circuit models called data re-uploading circuits. Secondly, we show, through simple constructions and numerical simulations, that models defined and trained variationally can exhibit a critically better generalization performance than their kernel formulations, which is the true figure of merit of machine learning tasks. Our results constitute another step towards a more comprehensive theory of quantum machine learning models next to kernel formulations.
To make progress in science, we often build abstract representations of physical systems that meaningfully encode information about the systems. The representations learnt by most current machine learning techniques reflect statistical structure present in the training data; however, these methods do not allow us to specify explicit and operationally meaningful requirements on the representation. Here, we present a neural network architecture based on the notion that agents dealing with different aspects of a physical system should be able to communicate relevant information as efficiently as possible to one another. This produces representations that separate different parameters which are useful for making statements about the physical system in different experimental settings. We present examples involving both classical and quantum physics. For instance, our architecture finds a compact representation of an arbitrary two-qubit system that separates local parameters from parameters describing quantum correlations. We further show that this method can be combined with reinforcement learning to enable representation learning within interactive scenarios where agents need to explore experimental settings to identify relevant variables.
In the past decade, deep learning methods have seen tremendous success in various supervised and unsupervised learning tasks such as classification and generative modeling. More recently, deep neural networks have emerged in the domain of reinforcement learning as a tool to solve decision-making problems of unprecedented complexity, e.g., navigation problems or game-playing AI. Despite the successful combinations of ideas from quantum computing with machine learning methods, there have been relatively few attempts to design quantum algorithms that would enhance deep reinforcement learning. This is partly due to the fact that quantum enhancements of deep neural networks, in general, have not been as extensively investigated as other quantum machine learning methods. In contrast, projective simulation is a reinforcement learning model inspired by the stochastic evolution of physical systems that enables a quantum speed-up in decision making. In this paper, we develop a unifying framework that connects deep learning and projective simulation, opening the route to quantum improvements in deep reinforcement learning. Our approach is based on so-called generative energy-based models to design reinforcement learning methods with a computational advantage in solving complex and large-scale decision-making problems.
Quantum error correction is widely thought to be the key to fault-tolerant quantum computation. However, determining the most suited encoding for unknown error channels or specific laboratory setups is highly challenging. Here, we present a reinforcement learning framework for optimizing and fault-tolerantly adapting quantum error correction codes. We consider a reinforcement learning agent tasked with modifying a quantum memory until a desired logical error rate is reached. Using efficient simulations of a surface code quantum memory with about 70 physical qubits, we demonstrate that such a reinforcement learning agent can determine near-optimal solutions, in terms of the number of physical qubits, for various error models of interest. Moreover, we show that agents trained on one task are able to transfer their experience to similar tasks. This ability for transfer learning showcases the inherent strengths of reinforcement learning and the applicability of our approach for optimization both in off-line simulations and on-line under laboratory conditions.
How useful can machine learning be in a quantum laboratory? Here we raise the question of the potential of intelligent machines in the context of scientific research. A major motivation for the present work is the unknown reachability of various entanglement classes in quantum experiments. We investigate this question by using the projective simulation model, a physics-oriented approach to artificial intelligence. In our approach, the projective simulation system is challenged to design complex photonic quantum experiments that produce high-dimensional entangled multiphoton states, which are of high interest in modern quantum experiments. The artificial intelligence system learns to create a variety of entangled states, and improves the efficiency of their realization. In the process, the system autonomously (re)discovers experimental techniques which are only now becoming standard in modern quantum optical experiments - a trait which was not explicitly demanded from the system but emerged through the process of learning. Such features highlight the possibility that machines could have a significantly more creative role in future research.