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Collaborating Authors

Natarajan, Sriraam


Relational Neural Markov Random Fields

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) models have attracted significant attention due to their ability to model complex data while handling uncertainty. However, most of these models have been limited to discrete domains due to their limited potential functions. We introduce Relational Neural Markov Random Fields (RN-MRFs) which allow for handling of complex relational hybrid domains. The key advantage of our model is that it makes minimal data distributional assumptions and can seamlessly allow for human knowledge through potentials or relational rules. We propose a maximum pseudolikelihood estimation-based learning algorithm with importance sampling for training the neural potential parameters. Our empirical evaluations across diverse domains such as image processing and relational object mapping, clearly demonstrate its effectiveness against non-neural counterparts.


Dynamic probabilistic logic models for effective abstractions in RL

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

State abstraction enables sample-efficient learning and better task transfer in complex reinforcement learning environments. Recently, we proposed RePReL (Kokel et al. 2021), a hierarchical framework that leverages a relational planner to provide useful state abstractions for learning. We present a brief overview of this framework and the use of a dynamic probabilistic logic model to design these state abstractions. Our experiments show that RePReL not only achieves better performance and efficient learning on the task at hand but also demonstrates better generalization to unseen tasks.


Relational Boosted Bandits

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Contextual bandits algorithms have become essential in real-world user interaction problems in recent years. However, these algorithms rely on context as attribute value representation, which makes them unfeasible for real-world domains like social networks are inherently relational. We propose Relational Boosted Bandits(RB2), acontextual bandits algorithm for relational domains based on (relational) boosted trees. RB2 enables us to learn interpretable and explainable models due to the more descriptive nature of the relational representation. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness and interpretability of RB2 on tasks such as link prediction, relational classification, and recommendations.


Fitted Q-Learning for Relational Domains

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We take two specific approaches - first Value function approximation in Reinforcement Learning is to represent the lifted Q-value functions and the second (RL) has long been viewed using the lens of feature discovery is to represent the Bellman residuals - both using a set of (Parr et al. 2007). A set of classical approaches relational regression trees (RRTs) (Blockeel and De Raedt for this problem based on Approximate Dynamic Programming 1998). A key aspect of our approach is that it is model-free, (ADP) is the fitted value iteration algorithm (Boyan which most of the RMDP algorithms assume. The only exception and Moore 1995; Ernst, Geurts, and Wehenkel 2005; Riedmiller is Fern et al. (2006), who directly learn in policy 2005), a batch mode approximation scheme that employs space. Our work differs from their work in that we directly function approximators in each iteration to represent learn value functions and eventually policies from them the value estimates. Another popular class of methods that and adapt the most recently successful relational gradientboosting address this problem is Bellman error based methods (Menache, (RFGB) (Natarajan et al. 2014), which has been Mannor, and Shimkin 2005; Keller, Mannor, and Precup shown to outperform learning relational rules one by one.


Knowledge Graph Alignment using String Edit Distance

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge Graphs (KG) are a rich source of structured knowledge that can be leveraged to solve important AI tasks such as question answering [3], relation extraction [25], recommender systems [30]. Consequently, the past decade has witnessed the development of large-scale knowledge graphs like Freebase[1], Wordnet[13], Yago[20], DBpedia[9], NELL[4] that store billions of facts about the world. Typically, a knowledge graph stores knowledge in the form of triples (h, r, t) where r is the relation between entity h and t. Even though knowledge graphs are extremely large and are growing with each day, they are still incomplete with important links missing between entities. This problem of predicting missing links between known entities is known as Knowledge Graph Completion (KBC).


Multiplicative Forests for Continuous-Time Processes

Neural Information Processing Systems

Learning temporal dependencies between variables over continuous time is an important and challenging task. Continuous-time Bayesian networks effectively model such processes but are limited by the number of conditional intensity matrices, which grows exponentially in the number of parents per variable. We develop a partition-based representation using regression trees and forests whose parameter spaces grow linearly in the number of node splits. Using a multiplicative assumption we show how to update the forest likelihood in closed form, producing efficient model updates. Our results show multiplicative forests can be learned from few temporal trajectories with large gains in performance and scalability.


A Preliminary Approach for Learning Relational Policies for the Management of Critically Ill Children

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The increased use of electronic health records has made possible the automated extraction of medical policies from patient records to aid in the development of clinical decision support systems. We adapted a boosted Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) framework to learn probabilistic rules from clinical hospital records for the management of physiologic parameters of children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure who were managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In this preliminary study, the results were promising. In particular, the algorithm returned logic rules for medical actions that are consistent with medical reasoning.


Non-Parametric Learning of Lifted Restricted Boltzmann Machines

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We consider the problem of discriminatively learning restricted Boltzmann machines in the presence of relational data. Unlike previous approaches that employ a rule learner (for structure learning) and a weight learner (for parameter learning) sequentially, we develop a gradient-boosted approach that performs both simultaneously. Our approach learns a set of weak relational regression trees, whose paths from root to leaf are conjunctive clauses and represent the structure, and whose leaf values represent the parameters. When the learned relational regression trees are transformed into a lifted RBM, its hidden nodes are precisely the conjunctive clauses derived from the relational regression trees. This leads to a more interpretable and explainable model. Our empirical evaluations clearly demonstrate this aspect, while displaying no loss in effectiveness of the learned models.


Lifted Hybrid Variational Inference

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A variety of lifted inference algorithms, which exploit model symmetry to reduce computational cost, have been proposed to render inference tractable in probabilistic relational models. Most existing lifted inference algorithms operate only over discrete domains or continuous domains with restricted potential functions, e.g., Gaussian. We investigate two approximate lifted variational approaches that are applicable to hybrid domains and expressive enough to capture multi-modality. We demonstrate that the proposed variational methods are both scalable and can take advantage of approximate model symmetries, even in the presence of a large amount of continuous evidence. We demonstrate that our approach compares favorably against existing message-passing based approaches in a variety of settings. Finally, we present a sufficient condition for the Bethe approximation to yield a non-trivial estimate over the marginal polytope.


Non-Parametric Learning of Gaifman Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider the problem of structure learning for Gaifman models and learn relational features that can be used to derive feature representations from a knowledge base. These relational features are first-order rules that are then partially grounded and counted over local neighborhoods of a Gaifman model to obtain the feature representations. We propose a method for learning these relational features for a Gaifman model by using relational tree distances. Our empirical evaluation on real data sets demonstrates the superiority of our approach over classical rule-learning.