McIlraith, Sheila


Reports of the AAAI 2014 Conference Workshops

AI Magazine

The AAAI-14 Workshop program was held Sunday and Monday, July 27–28, 2012, at the Québec City Convention Centre in Québec, Canada. The AAAI-14 workshop program included fifteen workshops covering a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence. The titles of the workshops were AI and Robotics; Artificial Intelligence Applied to Assistive Technologies and Smart Environments; Cognitive Computing for Augmented Human Intelligence; Computer Poker and Imperfect Information; Discovery Informatics; Incentives and Trust in Electronic Communities; Intelligent Cinematography and Editing; Machine Learning for Interactive Systems: Bridging the Gap between Perception, Action and Communication; Modern Artificial Intelligence for Health Analytics; Multiagent Interaction without Prior Coordination; Multidisciplinary Workshop on Advances in Preference Handling; Semantic Cities -- Beyond Open Data to Models, Standards and Reasoning; Sequential Decision Making with Big Data; Statistical Relational AI; and The World Wide Web and Public Health Intelligence. This article presents short summaries of those events.


Reports of the AAAI 2014 Conference Workshops

AI Magazine

The AAAI-14 Workshop program was held Sunday and Monday, July 27–28, 2012, at the Québec City Convention Centre in Québec, Canada. Canada. The AAAI-14 workshop program included fifteen workshops covering a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence. The titles of the workshops were AI and Robotics; Artificial Intelligence Applied to Assistive Technologies and Smart Environments; Cognitive Computing for Augmented Human Intelligence; Computer Poker and Imperfect Information; Discovery Informatics; Incentives and Trust in Electronic Communities; Intelligent Cinematography and Editing; Machine Learning for Interactive Systems: Bridging the Gap between Perception, Action and Communication; Modern Artificial Intelligence for Health Analytics; Multiagent Interaction without Prior Coordination; Multidisciplinary Workshop on Advances in Preference Handling; Semantic Cities — Beyond Open Data to Models, Standards and Reasoning; Sequential Decision Making with Big Data; Statistical Relational AI; and The World Wide Web and Public Health Intelligence. This article presents short summaries of those events.


Planning Over Multi-Agent Epistemic States: A Classical Planning Approach

AAAI Conferences

Many AI applications involve the interaction of multiple autonomous agents, requiring those agents to reason about their own beliefs, as well as those of other agents. However, planning involving nested beliefs is known to be computationally challenging. In this work, we address the task of synthesizing plans that necessitate reasoning about the beliefs of other agents. We plan from the perspective of a single agent with the potential for goals and actions that involve nested beliefs, non-homogeneous agents, co-present observations, and the ability for one agent to reason as if it were another. We formally characterize our notion of planning with nested belief, and subsequently demonstrate how to automatically convert such problems into problems that appeal to classical planning technology. Our approach represents an important first step towards applying the well-established field of automated planning to the challenging task of planning involving nested beliefs of multiple agents.


Preface

AAAI Conferences

This workshop aims to bring clarity and foster the communication among AI researchers, domain experts and city and local government officials beyond open data to models, standards, and reasoning for cities.


Assumption-Based Planning: Generating Plans and Explanations under Incomplete Knowledge

AAAI Conferences

Many practical planning problems necessitate the generation of a plan under incomplete information about the state of the world. In this paper we propose the notion of Assumption-Based Planning. Unlike conformant planning, which attempts to find a plan under all possible completions of the initial state, an assumption-based plan supports the assertion of additional assumptions about the state of the world, often resulting in high quality plans where no conformant plan exists. We are interested in this paradigm of planning for two reasons: 1) it captures a compelling form of \emph{commonsense planning}, and 2) it is of great utility in the generation of explanations, diagnoses, and counter-examples -- tasks which share a computational core with We formalize the notion of assumption-based planning, establishing a relationship between assumption-based and conformant planning, and prove properties of such plans. We further provide for the scenario where some assumptions are more preferred than others. Exploiting the correspondence with conformant planning, we propose a means of computing assumption-based plans via a translation to classical planning. Our translation is an extension of the popular approach proposed by Palacios and Geffner and realized in their T0 planner. We have implemented our planner, A0, as a variant of T0 and tested it on a number of expository domains drawn from the International Planning Competition. Our results illustrate the utility of this new planning paradigm.


Monitoring a Complez Physical System using a Hybrid Dynamic Bayes Net

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The Reverse Water Gas Shift system (RWGS) is a complex physical system designed to produce oxygen from the carbon dioxide atmosphere on Mars. If sent to Mars, it would operate without human supervision, thus requiring a reliable automated system for monitoring and control. The RWGS presents many challenges typical of real-world systems, including: noisy and biased sensors, nonlinear behavior, effects that are manifested over different time granularities, and unobservability of many important quantities. In this paper we model the RWGS using a hybrid (discrete/continuous) Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN), where the state at each time slice contains 33 discrete and 184 continuous variables. We show how the system state can be tracked using probabilistic inference over the model. We discuss how to deal with the various challenges presented by the RWGS, providing a suite of techniques that are likely to be useful in a wide range of applications. In particular, we describe a general framework for dealing with nonlinear behavior using numerical integration techniques, extending the successful Unscented Filter. We also show how to use a fixed-point computation to deal with effects that develop at different time scales, specifically rapid changes occurring during slowly changing processes. We test our model using real data collected from the RWGS, demonstrating the feasibility of hybrid DBNs for monitoring complex real-world physical systems.


Making Reasonable Assumptions to Plan with Incomplete Information: Abridged Report

AAAI Conferences

Many practical planning problems necessitate the generation of a plan under incomplete information about the state of the world. In this paper we propose the notion of Assumption-Based Planning. Unlike conformant planning, which attempts to find a plan under all possible completions of the initial state, an assumption-based plan supports the assertion of additional assumptions about the state of the world, simplifying the planning problem. In many practical settings, such plans can be of higher quality than conformant plans. We formalize the notion of assumption-based planning, establishing a relationship between assumption-based and conformant planning, and prove properties of such plans. We further provide for the scenario where some assumptions are more preferred than others. Exploiting the correspondence with conformant planning, we propose a means of computing assumption-based plans via a translation to classical planning. Our translation is an extension of the popular approach proposed by Palacios and Geffner and realized in their T0 planner. We have implemented our planner, A0, as a variant of T0 and tested it on a number of expository domains drawn from the International Planning Competition. Our results illustrate the utility of this new planning paradigm.


Generating Optimal Plans in Highly-Dynamic Domains

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Generating optimal plans in highly dynamic environments is challenging. Plans are predicated on an assumed initial state, but this state can change unexpectedly during plan generation, potentially invalidating the planning effort. In this paper we make three contributions: (1) We propose a novel algorithm for generating optimal plans in settings where frequent, unexpected events interfere with planning. It is able to quickly distinguish relevant from irrelevant state changes, and to update the existing planning search tree if necessary. (2) We argue for a new criterion for evaluating plan adaptation techniques: the relative running time compared to the "size" of changes. This is significant since during recovery more changes may occur that need to be recovered from subsequently, and in order for this process of repeated recovery to terminate, recovery time has to converge. (3) We show empirically that our approach can converge and find optimal plans in environments that would ordinarily defy planning due to their high dynamics.


Preface

AAAI Conferences

The KR conference series serves as a biennial gathering for researchers working on different aspects of KR&R, and fosters communication, cross-fertilization of ideas, and collaboration across re- search boundaries. As a consequence, the lists of topics addressed at this and previous KR confer- ences are diverse and cover a broad range of substantial research areas. KR 2012 is a case in point. The most popular topics for submission to KR 2012 included answer set programming; description logics; nonmonotonic reasoning; argumentation; belief merging, revision, and update; and KR and databases.


Fast d-DNNF Compilation with sharpSAT

AAAI Conferences

Knowledge compilation is a valuable tool for dealing with the computational intractability of propositional reasoning. In knowledge compilation, a representation in a source language is typically compiled into a target language in order to perform some reasoning task in polynomial time. One particularly popular target language is Deterministic Decomposable Negation Normal Form (d-DNNF). d-DNNF supports efficient reasoning for tasks such as consistency checking and model counting, and as such it has proven a useful representation language for Bayesian inference, conformant planning, and diagnosis. In this paper, we exploit recent advances in #SAT solving in order to produce a new state-of-the-art CNF → d-DNNF compiler. We evaluate the properties and performance of our compiler relative to C2D, the de facto standard for compiling to d-DNNF. Empirical results demonstrate that our compiler is generally one order of magnitude faster than C2D on typical benchmark problems while yielding a d-DNNF representation of comparable size.