McGuinness, Deborah L.


Knowledge Integration for Disease Characterization: A Breast Cancer Example

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the rapid advancements in cancer research, the information that is useful for characterizing disease, staging tumors, and creating treatment and survivorship plans has been changing at a pace that creates challenges when physicians try to remain current. One example involves increasing usage of biomarkers when characterizing the pathologic prognostic stage of a breast tumor. We present our semantic technology approach to support cancer characterization and demonstrate it in our end-to-end prototype system that collects the newest breast cancer staging criteria from authoritative oncology manuals to construct an ontology for breast cancer. Using a tool we developed that utilizes this ontology, physician-facing applications can be used to quickly stage a new patient to support identifying risks, treatment options, and monitoring plans based on authoritative and best practice guidelines. Physicians can also re-stage existing patients or patient populations, allowing them to find patients whose stage has changed in a given patient cohort. As new guidelines emerge, using our proposed mechanism, which is grounded by semantic technologies for ingesting new data from staging manuals, we have created an enriched cancer staging ontology that integrates relevant data from several sources with very little human intervention.


Seq2RDF: An end-to-end application for deriving Triples from Natural Language Text

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present an end-to-end approach that takes unstructured textual input and generates structured output compliant with a given vocabulary. Inspired by recent successes in neural machine translation, we treat the triples within a given knowledge graph as an independent graph language and propose an encoder-decoder framework with an attention mechanism that leverages knowledge graph embeddings. Our model learns the mapping from natural language text to triple representation in the form of subject-predicate-object using the selected knowledge graph vocabulary. Experiments on three different data sets show that we achieve competitive F1-Measures over the baselines using our simple yet effective approach. A demo video is included.


Exploiting Task-Oriented Resources to Learn Word Embeddings for Clinical Abbreviation Expansion

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the medical domain, identifying and expanding abbreviations in clinical texts is a vital task for both better human and machine understanding. It is a challenging task because many abbreviations are ambiguous especially for intensive care medicine texts, in which phrase abbreviations are frequently used. Besides the fact that there is no universal dictionary of clinical abbreviations and no universal rules for abbreviation writing, such texts are difficult to acquire, expensive to annotate and even sometimes, confusing to domain experts. This paper proposes a novel and effective approach -- exploiting task-oriented resources to learn word embeddings for expanding abbreviations in clinical notes. We achieved 82.27\% accuracy, close to expert human performance.


Reports of the AAAI 2011 Fall Symposia

AI Magazine

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence was pleased to present the 2011 Fall Symposium Series, held Friday through Sunday, November 4–6, at the Westin Arlington Gateway in Arlington, Virginia. The titles of the seven symposia are as follows: (1) Advances in Cognitive Systems; (2) Building Representations of Common Ground with Intelligent Agents; (3) Complex Adaptive Systems: Energy, Information and Intelligence; (4) Multiagent Coordination under Uncertainty; (5) Open Government Knowledge: AI Opportunities and Challenges; (6) Question Generation; and (7) Robot-Human Teamwork in Dynamic Adverse Environment. The highlights of each symposium are presented in this report.


Reports of the AAAI 2011 Fall Symposia

AI Magazine

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence was pleased to present the 2011 Fall Symposium Series, held Friday through Sunday, November 4–6, at the Westin Arlington Gateway in Arlington, Virginia. The titles of the seven symposia are as follows: (1) Advances in Cognitive Systems; (2) Building Representations of Common Ground with Intelligent Agents; (3) Complex Adaptive Systems: Energy, Information and Intelligence; (4) Multiagent Coordination under Uncertainty; (5) Open Government Knowledge: AI Opportunities and Challenges; (6) Question Generation; and (7) Robot-Human Teamwork in Dynamic Adverse Environment. The highlights of each symposium are presented in this report.


Reports of the AAAI 2010 Spring Symposia

AI Magazine

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University's Department of Computer Science, is pleased to present the 2010 Spring Symposium Series, to be held Monday through Wednesday, March 22–24, 2010 at Stanford University. The titles of the seven symposia are Artificial Intelligence for Development; Cognitive Shape Processing; Educational Robotics and Beyond: Design and Evaluation; Embedded Reasoning: Intelligence in Embedded Systems Intelligent Information Privacy Management; It's All in the Timing: Representing and Reasoning about Time in Interactive Behavior; and Linked Data Meets Artificial Intelligence.


Reports of the AAAI 2010 Spring Symposia

AI Magazine

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science, is pleased to present the 2010 Spring Symposium Series, to be held Monday through Wednesday, March 22–24, 2010 at Stanford University. The titles of the seven symposia are Artificial Intelligence for Development; Cognitive Shape Processing; Educational Robotics and Beyond: Design and Evaluation; Embedded Reasoning: Intelligence in Embedded Systems Intelligent Information Privacy Management; It’s All in the Timing: Representing and Reasoning about Time in Interactive Behavior; and Linked Data Meets Artificial Intelligence.


Integrity Constraints in OWL

AAAI Conferences

In many data-centric semantic web applications, it is desirable to use OWL to encode the Integrity Constraints (IC) that must be satisfied by instance data. However, challenges arise due to the Open World Assumption (OWA) and the lack of a Unique Name Assumption (UNA) in OWL’s standard semantics. In particular, conditions that trigger constraint violations in systems using the ClosedWorld Assumption (CWA), will generate new inferences in standard OWL-based reasoning applications. In this paper, we present an alternative IC semantics for OWL that allows applications to work with the CWA and the weak UNA. Ontology modelers can choose which OWL axioms to be interpreted with our IC semantics. Thus application developers are able to combine open world reasoning with closed world constraint validation in a flexible way. We also show that IC validation can be reduced to query answering under certain conditions. Finally, we describe our prototype implementation based on the OWL reasoner Pellet.


Towards Faceted Browsing over Linked Data

AAAI Conferences

As the pace of Linked data generation and usage increases, so does the interest in intelligent, usable, and scalable browsing tools. Faceted browsing has potential to provide a foundation for effective dataset navigation. In this paper, we will discuss some of the anticipated benefits along with some associated challenges in building the next-generation faceted browsing system for the Web of Linked Data. We also present our initial system design and implementation.


An Ensemble Learning and Problem Solving Architecture for Airspace Management

AAAI Conferences

In this paper we describe the application of a novel learning and problem solving architecture to the domain of airspace management, where multiple requests for the use of airspace need to be reconciled and managed automatically. The key feature of our "Generalized Integrated Learning Architecture" (GILA) is a set of integrated learning and reasoning (ILR) systems coordinated by a central meta-reasoning executive (MRE). Each ILR learns independently from the same training example and contributes to problem-solving in concert with other ILRs as directed by the MRE. Formal evaluations show that our system performs as well as or better than humans after learning from the same training data. Further, GILA outperforms any individual ILR run in isolation, thus demonstrating the power of the ensemble architecture for learning and problem solving.