If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Creating systems that can learn to answer natural language questions has been a longstanding challenge for artificial intelligence. Most prior approaches focused on producing a specialized language system for a particular domain and dataset, and they required training on a large corpus manually annotated with logical forms. This paper introduces an analogy-based approach that instead adapts an existing general purpose semantic parser to answer questions in a novel domain by jointly learning disambiguation heuristics and query construction templates from purely textual question-answer pairs. Our technique uses possible semantic interpretations of the natural language questions and answers to constrain a query-generation procedure, producing cases during training that are subsequently reused via analogical retrieval and composed to answer test questions. Bootstrapping an existing semantic parser in this way significantly reduces the number of training examples needed to accurately answer questions. We demonstrate the efficacy of our technique using the Geoquery corpus, on which it approaches state of the art performance using 10-fold cross validation, shows little decrease in performance with 2-folds, and achieves above 50% accuracy with as few as 10 examples.
McFate, Clifton (Northwestern University)
Human language is extraordinarily creative in form and function, and adapting to this ever-shifting linguistic landscape is a daunting task for interactive cognitive systems. Recently, construction grammar has emerged as a linguistic theory for representing these complex and often idiomatic linguistic forms. Furthermore, analogical generalization has been proposed as a learning mechanism for extracting linguistic constructions from input. I propose an account that uses a computational model of analogy to learn and generalize argument structure constructions.