McCarthy, John


In Honor of Marvin Minsky's Contributions on his 80th Birthday

AI Magazine

This article seizes an opportune time to honor Marvin and his contributions and influence in artificial intelligence, science, and beyond. The article provides readers with some personal insights of Minsky from Danny Hillis, John McCarthy, Tom Mitchell, Erik Mueller, Doug Riecken, Aaron Sloman, and Patrick Henry Winston -- all members of the AI community that Minsky helped to found. The article continues with a brief resume of Minsky's research, which spans an enormous range of fields. It concludes with a short biographical account of Minsky's personal history.


A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, August 31, 1955

AI Magazine

The 1956 Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence was initiated by this August 31, 1955 proposal, authored by John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon. The original typescript consisted of 17 pages plus a title page. Copies of the typescript are housed in the archives at Dartmouth College and Stanford University. The first 5 papers state the proposal, and the remaining pages give qualifications and interests of the four who proposed the study.


The Future of AI -- A Manifesto

AI Magazine

The long-term goal of AI is human-level AI. This is still not directly definable, although we still know of human abilities that even the the best present programs on the fastest computers have not been able to emulate, such as playing master-level go and learning science from the Internet. Basic researchers in AI should measure their work as to the extent to which it advances this goal.


2003 AAAI Spring Symposium Series

AI Magazine

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University's Department of Computer Science, presented the 2003 Spring Symposium Series, Monday through Wednesday, 24-26 March 2003, at Stanford University. The titles of the eight symposia were Agent-Mediated Knowledge Management, Computational Synthesis: From Basic Building Blocks to High- Level Functions, Foundations and Applications of Spatiotemporal Reasoning (FASTR), Human Interaction with Autonomous Systems in Complex Environments, Intelligent Multimedia Knowledge Management, Logical Formalization of Commonsense Reasoning, Natural Language Generation in Spoken and Written Dialogue, and New Directions in Question-Answering Motivation.


In Memoriam: Arthur Samuel: Pioneer in Machine Learning

AI Magazine

Arthur Samuel (1901-1990) was a pioneer of artificial intelligence research. From 1949 through the late 1960s, he did the best work in making computers learn from their expe-rience. His vehicle for this work was the game of checkers.


Artificial Intelligence, Logic and Formalizing Common Sense

Classics

"This is a position paper about the relations among artificial intelligence (AI), mathematical logic and the formalization of common-sense knowledge and reasoning. It also treats other problems of concern to both AI and philosophy. I thank the editor for inviting it. The position advocated is that philosophy can contribute to AI if it treats some of its traditional subject matter in more detail and that this will advance the philosophical goals also. Actual formalisms (mostly first order languages) for expressing common-sense facts are described in the references."Copies also available on J. McCarthy's Stanford Archivein Philosophical Logic and Artificial Intelligence, Richmond Thomason (ed), Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1989.



Artificial Intelligence Needs More Emphasis on Basic Research: President's Quarterly Message

AI Magazine

Too few people are doing basic research in AI relative to the number working on applications. The ratio of basic/applied is less in AI than in the older sciences and than in computer science generally. This is unfortunate, because reaching human level artificial intelligence will require fundamental conceptual advances.


Research in Progress in Robotics at Stanford University

AI Magazine

The Robotics Project (the "Hand-Eye Project") evolved within the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory under the guidance of John McCarthy, Les Earnest, Jerry Feldman, and Tom Binford. Major efforts have been undertaken to isolate and solve fundamental problems in computer vision, manipulation, and autonomous vehicles. Stereo vision and texture have been examined. Several generations of robot programming languages have resulted in AL, an intermediate-level language for commanding manipulation.


Circumscription - A form of non-monotonic reasoning

Classics

"Circumscription is a rule of conjecture that can be used by a person or program for `jumping to certain conclusions'. Namely, the objects that can be shown to have a certain property P by reasoning from certain facts A are all the objects that satisfy P. More generally, circumscription can be used to conjecture that the tuples that can be shown to satisfy a relation P(x, y, z) are all the tuples satisfying this relation. Thus we circumscribe the set of relevant tuples."Artificial Intelligence 13:27-39. Also in Readings in Artificial Intelligence, B.L. Webber and N.J. Nilsson (eds.), Tioga Publishing, 1981.