Collaborating Authors

Markert, Karla

Human Perception of Audio Deepfakes Artificial Intelligence

The recent emergence of deepfakes, computerized realistic multimedia fakes, brought the detection of manipulated and generated content to the forefront. While many machine learning models for deepfakes detection have been proposed, the human detection capabilities have remained far less explored. This is of special importance as human perception differs from machine perception and deepfakes are generally designed to fool the human. So far, this issue has only been addressed in the area of images and video. To compare the ability of humans and machines in detecting audio deepfakes, we conducted an online gamified experiment in which we asked users to discern bonda-fide audio samples from spoofed audio, generated with a variety of algorithms. 200 users competed for 8976 game rounds with an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm trained for audio deepfake detection. With the collected data we found that the machine generally outperforms the humans in detecting audio deepfakes, but that the converse holds for a certain attack type, for which humans are still more accurate. Furthermore, we found that younger participants are on average better at detecting audio deepfakes than older participants, while IT-professionals hold no advantage over laymen. We conclude that it is important to combine human and machine knowledge in order to improve audio deepfake detection.

Identifying Mislabeled Instances in Classification Datasets Machine Learning

Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.Abstract --A key requirement for supervised machine learning is labeled training data, which is created by annotating unlabeled data with the appropriate class. Because this process can in many cases not be done by machines, labeling needs to be performed by human domain experts. This process tends to be expensive both in time and money, and is prone to errors. Additionally, reviewing an entire labeled dataset manually is often prohibitively costly, so many real world datasets contain mislabeled instances. T o address this issue, we present in this paper a nonparametric end-to-end pipeline to find mislabeled instances in numerical, image and natural language datasets. We evaluate our system quantitatively by adding a small number of label noise to 29 datasets, and show that we find mislabeled instances with an average precision of more than 0.84 when reviewing our system's top 1% recommendation. We then apply our system to publicly available datasets and find mislabeled instances in CIF AR-100, Fashion-MNIST, and others. Finally, we publish the code and an applicable implementation of our approach.