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Collaborating Authors

Lage, Isaac


Exploring Computational User Models for Agent Policy Summarization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

AI agents are being developed to support high stakes decision-making processes from driving cars to prescribing drugs, making it increasingly important for human users to understand their behavior. Policy summarization methods aim to convey strengths and weaknesses of such agents by demonstrating their behavior in a subset of informative states. Some policy summarization methods extract a summary that optimizes the ability to reconstruct the agent's policy under the assumption that users will deploy inverse reinforcement learning. In this paper, we explore the use of different models for extracting summaries. We introduce an imitation learning-based approach to policy summarization; we demonstrate through computational simulations that a mismatch between the model used to extract a summary and the model used to reconstruct the policy results in worse reconstruction quality; and we demonstrate through a human-subject study that people use different models to reconstruct policies in different contexts, and that matching the summary extraction model to these can improve performance. Together, our results suggest that it is important to carefully consider user models in policy summarization.


An Evaluation of the Human-Interpretability of Explanation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent years have seen a boom in interest in machine learning systems that can provide a human-understandable rationale for their predictions or decisions. However, exactly what kinds of explanation are truly human-interpretable remains poorly understood. This work advances our understanding of what makes explanations interpretable under three specific tasks that users may perform with machine learning systems: simulation of the response, verification of a suggested response, and determining whether the correctness of a suggested response changes under a change to the inputs. Through carefully controlled human-subject experiments, we identify regularizers that can be used to optimize for the interpretability of machine learning systems. Our results show that the type of complexity matters: cognitive chunks (newly defined concepts) affect performance more than variable repetitions, and these trends are consistent across tasks and domains. This suggests that there may exist some common design principles for explanation systems.


Human-in-the-Loop Interpretability Prior

Neural Information Processing Systems

We often desire our models to be interpretable as well as accurate. Prior work on optimizing models for interpretability has relied on easy-to-quantify proxies for interpretability, such as sparsity or the number of operations required. In this work, we optimize for interpretability by directly including humans in the optimization loop. We develop an algorithm that minimizes the number of user studies to find models that are both predictive and interpretable and demonstrate our approach on several data sets. Our human subjects results show trends towards different proxy notions of interpretability on different datasets, which suggests that different proxies are preferred on different tasks.


Human-in-the-Loop Interpretability Prior

Neural Information Processing Systems

We often desire our models to be interpretable as well as accurate. Prior work on optimizing models for interpretability has relied on easy-to-quantify proxies for interpretability, such as sparsity or the number of operations required. In this work, we optimize for interpretability by directly including humans in the optimization loop. We develop an algorithm that minimizes the number of user studies to find models that are both predictive and interpretable and demonstrate our approach on several data sets. Our human subjects results show trends towards different proxy notions of interpretability on different datasets, which suggests that different proxies are preferred on different tasks.


Evaluating Reinforcement Learning Algorithms in Observational Health Settings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Much attention has been devoted recently to the development of machine learning algorithms with the goal of improving treatment policies in healthcare. Reinforcement learning (RL) is a sub-field within machine learning that is concerned with learning how to make sequences of decisions so as to optimize long-term effects. Already, RL algorithms have been proposed to identify decision-making strategies for mechanical ventilation, sepsis management and treatment of schizophrenia. However, before implementing treatment policies learned by black-box algorithms in high-stakes clinical decision problems, special care must be taken in the evaluation of these policies. In this document, our goal is to expose some of the subtleties associated with evaluating RL algorithms in healthcare. We aim to provide a conceptual starting point for clinical and computational researchers to ask the right questions when designing and evaluating algorithms for new ways of treating patients. In the following, we describe how choices about how to summarize a history, variance of statistical estimators, and confounders in more ad-hoc measures can result in unreliable, even misleading estimates of the quality of a treatment policy. We also provide suggestions for mitigating these effects---for while there is much promise for mining observational health data to uncover better treatment policies, evaluation must be performed thoughtfully.


Human-in-the-Loop Interpretability Prior

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We often desire our models to be interpretable as well as accurate. Prior work on optimizing models for interpretability has relied on easy-to-quantify proxies for interpretability, such as sparsity or the number of operations required. In this work, we optimize for interpretability by directly including humans in the optimization loop. We develop an algorithm that minimizes the number of user studies to find models that are both predictive and interpretable and demonstrate our approach on several data sets. Our human subjects results show trends towards different proxy notions of interpretability on different datasets, which suggests that different proxies are preferred on different tasks.