Kraetzschmar, Gerhard


Finding Ways to Get the Job Done: An Affordance-Based Approach

AAAI Conferences

Adapting plans to changes in the environment by finding alternatives and taking advantage of opportunities is a common human behavior. The need for such behavior is often rooted in the uncertainty produced by our incomplete knowledge of the environment. While several existing planning approaches deal with such issues, artificial agents still lack the robustness that humans display in accomplishing their tasks. In this work, we address this brittleness by combining Hierarchical Task Network planning, Description Logics, and the notions of affordances and conceptual similarity. The approach allows a domestic service robot to find ways to get a job done by making substitutions. We show how knowledge is modeled, how the reasoning process is used to create a constrained planning problem, and how the system handles cases where plan generation fails due to missing/unavailable objects. The results of the evaluation for two tasks in a domestic service domain show the viability of the approach in finding and making the appropriate goal transformations.


RoboCup 2004 Competitions and Symposium: A Small Kick for Robots, a Giant Score for Science

AI Magazine

RoboCup is an international initiative with the main goals of fostering research and education in artificial intelligence and robotics, as well as of promoting science and technology to world citizens. The idea behind RoboCup is to provide a standard problem for which a wide range of technologies can be integrated and examined, as well as being used for project-oriented education, and to organize annual events open to the general public, at which different solutions to the problem are compared. The eighth annual RoboCup -- RoboCup 2004 -- was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 27 June to 5 July. In this article, a general description of RoboCup 2004 is presented, including summaries concerning teams, participants, distribution into leagues, main research advances, as well as detailed descriptions for each league.


RoboCup 2004 Competitions and Symposium: A Small Kick for Robots, a Giant Score for Science

AI Magazine

RoboCup is an international initiative with the main goals of fostering research and education in artificial intelligence and robotics, as well as of promoting science and technology to world citizens. The idea behind RoboCup is to provide a standard problem for which a wide range of technologies can be integrated and examined, as well as being used for project-oriented education, and to organize annual events open to the general public, at which different solutions to the problem are compared. The eighth annual RoboCup -- RoboCup 2004 -- was held in Lisbon, Portugal, from 27 June to 5 July. In this article, a general description of RoboCup 2004 is presented, including summaries concerning teams, participants, distribution into leagues, main research advances, as well as detailed descriptions for each league.


RoboCup-2000: The Fourth Robotic Soccer World Championships

AI Magazine

The Fourth Robotic Soccer World Championships (RoboCup-2000) was held from 27 August to 3 September 2000 at the Melbourne Exhibition Center in Melbourne, Australia. RoboCup-2000 showed dramatic improvement over past years in each of the existing robotic soccer leagues (legged, small size, mid size, and simulation) and introduced RoboCup Jr. competitions and RoboCup Rescue and Humanoid demonstration events. The RoboCup Workshop, held in conjunction with the championships, provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences among the different leagues. This article summarizes the advances seen at RoboCup-2000, including reports from the championship teams and overviews of all the RoboCup events.


RoboCup-2000: The Fourth Robotic Soccer World Championships

AI Magazine

The Fourth Robotic Soccer World Championships (RoboCup-2000) was held from 27 August to 3 September 2000 at the Melbourne Exhibition Center in Melbourne, Australia. In total, 83 teams, consisting of about 500 people, participated in RoboCup-2000, and about 5000 spectators watched the events. RoboCup-2000 showed dramatic improvement over past years in each of the existing robotic soccer leagues (legged, small size, mid size, and simulation) and introduced RoboCup Jr. competitions and RoboCup Rescue and Humanoid demonstration events. The RoboCup Workshop, held in conjunction with the championships, provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences among the different leagues. This article summarizes the advances seen at RoboCup-2000, including reports from the championship teams and overviews of all the RoboCup events.



Overview of RoboCup-99

AI Magazine

RoboCup is an initiative designed to promote the full integration of AI and robotics research. Following the success of the first RoboCup in 1997 at Nagoya (Kitano 1998; Noda et al. 1998) and the second RoboCup in Paris in 1998, the Third Robot World Cup Soccer Games and Conferences, RoboCup-99, were held in Stockholm from 27 July to 4 August 1999 in conjunction with the Sixteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-99). There were four different leagues: (1) the simulation league, (2) the small-size real robot league, (3) the middle-size real robot league, and (4) the Sony legged robot league. RoboCup-2000, the Fourth Robot World Cup Soccer Games and Conferences, will take place in Melbourne, Australia, in August 2000.


The 1994 AAAI Robot-Building Laboratory

AI Magazine

The 1994 AAAI Robot-Building Laboratory (RBL-94) was held during the Twelfth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. The primary goal of RBL-94 was to provide those with little or no robotics experience the opportunity to acquire practical experience in a few days. Thirty persons, with backgrounds ranging from university professors to practitioners from industry, participated in the three-part lab.