If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Off-the-shelf pre-trained Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems are an increasingly viable service for companies of any size building speech-based products. While these ASR systems are trained on large amounts of data, domain mismatch is still an issue for many such parties that want to use this service as-is leading to not so optimal results for their task. We propose a simple technique to perform domain adaptation for ASR error correction via machine translation. The machine translation model is a strong candidate to learn a mapping from out-of-domain ASR errors to in-domain terms in the corresponding reference files. We use two off-the-shelf ASR systems in this work: Google ASR (commercial) and the ASPIRE model (open-source). We observe 7% absolute improvement in word error rate and 4 point absolute improvement in BLEU score in Google ASR output via our proposed method. We also evaluate ASR error correction via a downstream task of Speaker Diarization that captures speaker style, syntax, structure and semantic improvements we obtain via ASR correction.
Selvaraj, Sai P., Konam, Sandeep
Extracting relevant information from clinical conversations and providing it to doctors and patients might help in addressing doctor burnout and patient forgetfulness. In this paper, we focus on extracting the Medication Regimen (dosage and frequency for medications) discussed in a clinical conversation. We frame the problem as a Question Answering (QA) task and perform comparative analysis over: a QA approach, a new combined QA and Information Extraction approach and other baselines. We use a small corpus of 6,692 annotated doctor-patient conversations for the task. Clinical conversation corpora are costly to create, difficult to handle (because of data privacy concerns), and thus `scarce'. We address this data scarcity challenge through data augmentation methods, using publicly available embeddings and pretrain part of the network on a related task of summarization to improve the model's performance. Compared to the baseline, our best-performing models improve the dosage and frequency extractions' ROUGE-1 F1 scores from 54.28 and 37.13 to 89.57 and 45.94, respectively. Using our best-performing model, we present the first fully automated system that can extract Medication Regimen (MR) tags from spontaneous doctor-patient conversations with about ~71% accuracy.
With the success of deep learning, recent efforts have been focused on analyzing how learned networks make their classifications. We are interested in analyzing the network output based on the network structure and information flow through the network layers. We contribute an algorithm for 1) analyzing a deep network to find neurons that are 'important' in terms of the network classification outcome, and 2)automatically labeling the patches of the input image that activate these important neurons. We propose several measures of importance for neurons and demonstrate that our technique can be used to gain insight into, and explain how a network decomposes an image to make its final classification.
The predictive power of neural networks often costs model interpretability. Several techniques have been developed for explaining model outputs in terms of input features; however, it is difficult to translate such interpretations into actionable insight. Here, we propose a framework to analyze predictions in terms of the model's internal features by inspecting information flow through the network. Given a trained network and a test image, we select neurons by two metrics, both measured over a set of images created by perturbations to the input image: (1) magnitude of the correlation between the neuron activation and the network output and (2) precision of the neuron activation. We show that the former metric selects neurons that exert large influence over the network output while the latter metric selects neurons that activate on generalizable features. By comparing the sets of neurons selected by these two metrics, our framework suggests a way to investigate the internal attention mechanisms of convolutional neural networks.