Kersting, Kristian


Neural Conditional Gradients

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The move from hand-designed to learned optimizers in machine learning has been quite successful for gradient-based and -free optimizers. When facing a constrained problem, however, maintaining feasibility typically requires a projection step, which might be computationally expensive and not differentiable. We show how the design of projection-free convex optimization algorithms can be cast as a learning problem based on Frank-Wolfe Networks: recurrent networks implementing the Frank-Wolfe algorithm aka. conditional gradients. This allows them to learn to exploit structure when, e.g., optimizing over rank-1 matrices. Our LSTM-learned optimizers outperform hand-designed as well learned but unconstrained ones. We demonstrate this for training support vector machines and softmax classifiers.


Sum-Product Networks for Hybrid Domains

arXiv.org Machine Learning

While all kinds of mixed data -from personal data, over panel and scientific data, to public and commercial data- are collected and stored, building probabilistic graphical models for these hybrid domains becomes more difficult. Users spend significant amounts of time in identifying the parametric form of the random variables (Gaussian, Poisson, Logit, etc.) involved and learning the mixed models. To make this difficult task easier, we propose the first trainable probabilistic deep architecture for hybrid domains that features tractable queries. It is based on Sum-Product Networks (SPNs) with piecewise polynomial leave distributions together with novel nonparametric decomposition and conditioning steps using the Hirschfeld-Gebelein-R\'enyi Maximum Correlation Coefficient. This relieves the user from deciding a-priori the parametric form of the random variables but is still expressive enough to effectively approximate any continuous distribution and permits efficient learning and inference. Our empirical evidence shows that the architecture, called Mixed SPNs, can indeed capture complex distributions across a wide range of hybrid domains.


Coresets for Dependency Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many applications infer the structure of a probabilistic graphical model from data to elucidate the relationships between variables. But how can we train graphical models on a massive data set? In this paper, we show how to construct coresets -compressed data sets which can be used as proxy for the original data and have provably bounded worst case error- for Gaussian dependency networks (DNs), i.e., cyclic directed graphical models over Gaussians, where the parents of each variable are its Markov blanket. Specifically, we prove that Gaussian DNs admit coresets of size independent of the size of the data set. Unfortunately, this does not extend to DNs over members of the exponential family in general. As we will prove, Poisson DNs do not admit small coresets. Despite this worst-case result, we will provide an argument why our coreset construction for DNs can still work well in practice on count data. To corroborate our theoretical results, we empirically evaluated the resulting Core DNs on real data sets. The results


Global Weisfeiler-Lehman Graph Kernels

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Most state-of-the-art graph kernels only take local graph properties into account, i.e., the kernel is computed with regard to properties of the neighborhood of vertices or other small substructures. On the other hand, kernels that do take global graph propertiesinto account may not scale well to large graph databases. Here we propose to start exploring the space between local and global graph kernels, striking the balance between both worlds. Specifically, we introduce a novel graph kernel based on the $k$-dimensional Weisfeiler-Lehman algorithm. Unfortunately, the $k$-dimensional Weisfeiler-Lehman algorithm scales exponentially in $k$. Consequently, we devise a stochastic version of the kernel with provable approximation guarantees using conditional Rademacher averages. On bounded-degree graphs, it can even be computed in constant time. We support our theoretical results with experiments on several graph classification benchmarks, showing that our kernels often outperform the state-of-the-art in terms of classification accuracies.


Lifted Inference for Convex Quadratic Programs

AAAI Conferences

Symmetry is the essential element of lifted inferencethat has recently demonstrated the possibility to perform very efficient inference in highly-connected, but symmetric probabilistic models. This raises the question, whether this holds for optimization problems in general.Here we show that for a large classof optimization methods this is actually the case.Specifically, we introduce the concept of fractionalsymmetries of convex quadratic programs (QPs),which lie at the heart of many AI and machine learning approaches,and exploit it to lift, i.e., to compress QPs.These lifted QPs can then be tackled with the usual optimization toolbox (off-the-shelf solvers, cutting plane algorithms,stochastic gradients etc.). If the original QP exhibitssymmetry, then the lifted one will generallybe more compact, and hence more efficient to solve.


Learning Continuous-Time Bayesian Networks in Relational Domains: A Non-Parametric Approach

AAAI Conferences

Many real world applications in medicine, biology, communication networks, web mining, and economics, among others, involve modeling and learning structured stochastic processes that evolve over continuous time. Existing approaches, however, have focused on propositional domains only. Without extensive feature engineering, it is difficult-if not impossible-to apply them within relational domains where we may have varying number of objects and relations among them. We therefore develop the first relational representation called Relational Continuous-Time Bayesian Networks (RCTBNs) that can address this challenge. It features a nonparametric learning method that allows for efficiently learning the complex dependencies and their strengths simultaneously from sequence data. Our experimental results demonstrate that RCTBNs can learn as effectively as state-of-the-art approaches for propositional tasks while modeling relational tasks faithfully.


Computer Science on the Move: Inferring Migration Regularities from the Web via Compressed Label Propagation

AAAI Conferences

Many collective human activities have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. However, the possibility of regularities underlying researcher migration in computer science (CS) has barely been explored at global scale. To a large extend, this is due to official and commercial records being restricted, incompatible between countries, and especially not registered across researchers. We overcome these limitations by building our own, transnational, large-scale dataset inferred from publicly available information on the Web. Essentially, we use Label Propagation (LP) to infer missing geo-tags of author-paper-pairs retrieved from online bibliographies. On this dataset, we then find statistical regularities that explain how researchers in CS move from one place to another. However, although vanilla LP is simple and has been remarkably successful, its run time can suffer from unexploited symmetries of the underlying graph. Consequently, we introduce compressed LP (CLP) that exploits these symmetries to reduce the dimensions of the matrix inverted by LP to obtain optimal labeling scores. We prove that CLP reaches identical labeling scores as LP, while often being significantly faster with lower memory usage.


Reports of the AAAI 2014 Conference Workshops

AI Magazine

The AAAI-14 Workshop program was held Sunday and Monday, July 27–28, 2012, at the Québec City Convention Centre in Québec, Canada. The AAAI-14 workshop program included fifteen workshops covering a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence. The titles of the workshops were AI and Robotics; Artificial Intelligence Applied to Assistive Technologies and Smart Environments; Cognitive Computing for Augmented Human Intelligence; Computer Poker and Imperfect Information; Discovery Informatics; Incentives and Trust in Electronic Communities; Intelligent Cinematography and Editing; Machine Learning for Interactive Systems: Bridging the Gap between Perception, Action and Communication; Modern Artificial Intelligence for Health Analytics; Multiagent Interaction without Prior Coordination; Multidisciplinary Workshop on Advances in Preference Handling; Semantic Cities -- Beyond Open Data to Models, Standards and Reasoning; Sequential Decision Making with Big Data; Statistical Relational AI; and The World Wide Web and Public Health Intelligence. This article presents short summaries of those events.


Reports of the AAAI 2014 Conference Workshops

AI Magazine

The AAAI-14 Workshop program was held Sunday and Monday, July 27–28, 2012, at the Québec City Convention Centre in Québec, Canada. Canada. The AAAI-14 workshop program included fifteen workshops covering a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence. The titles of the workshops were AI and Robotics; Artificial Intelligence Applied to Assistive Technologies and Smart Environments; Cognitive Computing for Augmented Human Intelligence; Computer Poker and Imperfect Information; Discovery Informatics; Incentives and Trust in Electronic Communities; Intelligent Cinematography and Editing; Machine Learning for Interactive Systems: Bridging the Gap between Perception, Action and Communication; Modern Artificial Intelligence for Health Analytics; Multiagent Interaction without Prior Coordination; Multidisciplinary Workshop on Advances in Preference Handling; Semantic Cities — Beyond Open Data to Models, Standards and Reasoning; Sequential Decision Making with Big Data; Statistical Relational AI; and The World Wide Web and Public Health Intelligence. This article presents short summaries of those events.


Propagation Kernels

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce propagation kernels, a general graph-kernel framework for efficiently measuring the similarity of structured data. Propagation kernels are based on monitoring how information spreads through a set of given graphs. They leverage early-stage distributions from propagation schemes such as random walks to capture structural information encoded in node labels, attributes, and edge information. This has two benefits. First, off-the-shelf propagation schemes can be used to naturally construct kernels for many graph types, including labeled, partially labeled, unlabeled, directed, and attributed graphs. Second, by leveraging existing efficient and informative propagation schemes, propagation kernels can be considerably faster than state-of-the-art approaches without sacrificing predictive performance. We will also show that if the graphs at hand have a regular structure, for instance when modeling image or video data, one can exploit this regularity to scale the kernel computation to large databases of graphs with thousands of nodes. We support our contributions by exhaustive experiments on a number of real-world graphs from a variety of application domains.