Hoffman, Robert R.


Monster Analogies

AI Magazine

Over the centuries, it has become reified in that analogical reasoning has sometimes been regarded as a fundamental cognitive process. In addition, it has become identified with a particular expressive format. Beyond this dependence, research in cognitive science suggests that analogy relies on a number of genuinely fundamental cognitive capabilities, including semantic flexibility, the perception of resemblances and of distinctions, imagination, and metaphor. Extant symbolic models of analogical reasoning have various sorts of limitation, yet each model presents some important insights and plausible mechanisms.


The 1994 Florida AI Research Symposium

AI Magazine

The 1994 Florida AI Research Symposium was held 5-7 May at Pensacola Beach, Florida. This symposium brought together researchers and practitioners in AI, cognitive science, and allied disciplines to discuss timely topics, cutting-edge research, and system development efforts in areas spanning the entire AI field. Symposium highlights included Pat Hayes's comparison of the history of AI to the history of powered flight and Clark Glymour's discussion of the prehistory of AI.




The Problem of Extracting the Knowledge of Experts from the Perspective of Experimental Psychology

AI Magazine

The first step in the development of an expert system is the extraction and characterization of the knowledge and skills of an expert. This step is widely regarded as the major bottleneck in the system development process. To assist knowledge engineers and others who might be interested in the development of an expert system, I offer (1) a working classification of methods for extracting an expert's knowledge, (2) some ideas about the types of data that the methods yield, and (3) a set of criteria by which the methods can be compared relative to the needs of the system developer. The discussion highlights certain issues, including the contrast between the empirical approach taken by experimental psychologists and the formalism-oriented approach that is generally taken by cognitive scientists.