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Collaborating Authors

Hammerla, Nils


Neural Language Priors

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The choice of sentence encoder architecture reflects assumptions about how a sentence's meaning is composed from its constituent words. We examine the contribution of these architectures by holding them randomly initialised and fixed, effectively treating them as as hand-crafted language priors, and evaluating the resulting sentence encoders on downstream language tasks. We find that even when encoders are presented with additional information that can be used to solve tasks, the corresponding priors do not leverage this information, except in an isolated case. We also find that apparently uninformative priors are just as good as seemingly informative priors on almost all tasks, indicating that learning is a necessary component to leverage information provided by architecture choice.


Explaining Deep Learning Models with Constrained Adversarial Examples

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Machine learning algorithms generally suffer from a problem of explainability. Given a classification result from a model, it is typically hard to determine what caused the decision to be made, and to give an informative explanation. We explore a new method of generating counterfactual explanations, which instead of explaining why a particular classification was made explain how a different outcome can be achieved. This gives the recipients of the explanation a better way to understand the outcome, and provides an actionable suggestion. We show that the introduced method of Constrained Adversarial Examples (CADEX) can be used in real world applications, and yields explanations which incorporate business or domain constraints such as handling categorical attributes and range constraints.


Multilingual Factor Analysis

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this work we approach the task of learning multilingual word representations in an offline manner by fitting a generative latent variable model to a multilingual dictionary. We model equivalent words in different languages as different views of the same word generated by a common latent variable representing their latent lexical meaning. We explore the task of alignment by querying the fitted model for multilingual embeddings achieving competitive results across a variety of tasks. The proposed model is robust to noise in the embedding space making it a suitable method for distributed representations learned from noisy corpora.


Model Comparison for Semantic Grouping

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce a probabilistic framework for quantifying the semantic similarity between two groups of embeddings. We formulate the task of semantic similarity as a model comparison task in which we contrast a generative model which jointly models two sentences versus one that does not. We illustrate how this framework can be used for the Semantic Textual Similarity tasks using clear assumptions about how the embeddings of words are generated. We apply model comparison that utilises information criteria to address some of the shortcomings of Bayesian model comparison, whilst still penalising model complexity. We achieve competitive results by applying the proposed framework with an appropriate choice of likelihood on the STS datasets.