If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
The issue of representing attacks to attacks in argumentation is receiving an increasing attention as a useful conceptual modelling tool in several contexts. In this paper we present AFRA, a formalism encompassing unlimited recursive attacks within argumentation frameworks. AFRA satisfies the basic requirements of definition simplicity and rigorous compatibility with Dung's theory of argumentation. This paper provides a complete development of the AFRA formalism complemented by illustrative examples and a detailed comparison with other recursive attack formalizations.
The theory of abstract argumentation frameworks (afs) has, in the main, focused on finite structures, though there are many significant contexts where argumentation can be regarded as a process involving infinite objects. To address this limitation, in this paper we propose a novel approach for describing infinite afs using tools from formal language theory. In particular, the possibly infinite set of arguments is specified through the language recognized by a deterministic finite automaton while a suitable formalism, called attack expression, is introduced to describe the relation of attack between arguments. The proposed approach is shown to satisfy some desirable properties which can not be achieved through other "naive" uses of formal languages. In particular, the approach is shown to be expressive enough to capture (besides any arbitrary finite structure) a large variety of infinite afs including two major examples from previous literature and two sample cases from the domains of multi-agent negotiation and ambient intelligence. On the computational side, we show that several decision and construction problems which are known to be polynomial time solvable in finite afs are decidable in the context of the proposed formalism and we provide the relevant algorithms. Moreover we obtain additional results concerning the case of finitary afs.
Atkinson, Katie (University of Liverpool) | Baroni, Pietro (Università degli Studi di Brescia) | Giacomin, Massimiliano (Università degli Studi di Brescia) | Hunter, Anthony (University College London) | Prakken, Henry (Utrecht University) | Reed, Chris (University of Dundee) | Simari, Guillermo (Universidad Nacional del Sur) | Thimm, Matthias (Universität Koblenz-Landau) | Villata, Serena (Université Côte d'Azur)
Abstract argumentation frameworks (AFs) are one of the central formalisms in AI; equipped with a wide range of semantics, they have proven useful in several application domains. We contribute to the systematic analysis of semantics for AFs by connecting two recent lines of research -- the work on input/output frameworks and the study of the expressiveness of semantics. We do so by considering the following question: given a function describing an input/output behaviour by mapping extensions (resp. labellings) to sets of extensions (resp. labellings), is there an AF with designated input and output arguments realizing this function under a given semantics? For the major semantics we give exact characterizations of the functions which are realizable in this manner.
In this report from the field we describe jArgSemSAT, a Java re-implementation of ArgSemSAT. We show that jArgSemSAT can be easily integrated in existing argumentation systems (1) as an off-the-shelf, standalone, library; (2) as a Tweety compatible library; and (3) as a fast and robust web service freely available on the Web. The performance section shows that — despite being written in Java — jArgSemSAT is very efficient w.r.t. preferred semantics, which has associated problems with high computational complexity.
The adoption of a generic contrariness notion in ASPIC+ substantially enhances its expressiveness with respect to other formalisms for structured argumentation. In particular, it opens the way to novel investigation directions, like the use of multivalued logics in the construction of arguments. This paper points out however that in the current version of ASPIC+ a serious technical difficulty related with generic contrariness is present. With the aim of preserving the same level of generality, the paper provides a solution based on a novel notion of closure of the contrariness relation at the level of sets of formulas and an abstract representation of conflicts between sets of arguments. The proposed solution is shown to satisfy the same rationality postulates as ASPIC+ and represents a starting point for further technical and conceptual developments in structured argumentation.
Cerutti, Federico (University of Aberdeen) | Tachmazidis, Ilias (University of Huddersfield) | Vallati, Mauro (University of Huddersfield) | Batsakis, Sotirios (University of Huddersfield) | Giacomin, Massimiliano (University of Brescia) | Antoniou, Grigoris (University of Huddersfield)
Abstract argumentation framework ( AF ) is a unifying framework able to encompass a variety of nonmonotonic reasoning approaches, logic programming and computational argumentation. Yet, efficient approaches for most of the decision and enumeration problems associated to AF s are missing, thus limiting the efficacy of argumentation-based approaches in real domains. In this paper, we present an algorithm for enumerating the preferred extensions of abstract argumentation frameworks which exploits parallel computation. To this purpose, the SCC-recursive semantics definition schema is adopted, where extensions are defined at the level of specific sub-frameworks. The algorithm shows significant performance improvements in large frameworks, in terms of number of solutions found and speedup.
This paper presents a novel SAT-based approach for the computation of extensions in abstract argumentation, with focus on preferred semantics, and an empirical evaluation of its performances. The approach is based on the idea of reducing the problem of computing complete extensions to a SAT problem and then using a depth-first search method to derive preferred extensions. The proposed approach has been tested using two distinct SAT solvers and compared with three state-of-the-art systems for preferred extension computation. It turns out that the proposed approach delivers significantly better performances in the large majority of the considered cases.
This paper describes a preliminary proposal of an argumentation-based approach to modeling articulated decision support contexts. The proposed approach encompasses a variety of argument and attack schemes aimed at representing basic knowledge and reasoning patterns for decision support. Some of the defined attack schemes involve attacks directed towards other attacks, which are not allowed in traditional argumentation frameworks but turn out to be useful as a knowledge and reasoning modeling tool: in particular, we demonstrate their use to support what-if reasoning capabilities, which are of primary importance in decision support. Formal backing to this approach is provided by the AFRA formalism, a recently proposed extension of Dung’s argumentation framework. A literature example concerning a decision problem about medical treatments is adopted to illustrate the approach.
In the context of Dung's theory of abstract argumentation frameworks, the recently introduced resolution-based grounded semantics features the unique property of fully complying with a set of general requirements, only partially satisfied by previous literature proposals. This paper contributes to the investigation of resolution-based grounded semantics by analyzing its computational properties with reference to a standard set of decision problems for abstract argumentation semantics: (a) checking the property of being an extension for a set of arguments; (b) checking agreement with traditional grounded semantics; (c) checking the existence of a non-empty extension; (d) checking credulous acceptance of an argument; (e) checking skeptical acceptance of an argument. It is shown that problems (a)-(c) admit polynomial time decision processes, while (d) is NP-complete and (e) coNP-complete.